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Pedraza Carmen

Contributed Article: “Stress, Depression, Resilience and Ageing: A Role for the LPA-LPA1 Pathway

MOST ACCESSED ARTICLE – The Use of Biomarkers in Sepsis – Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Journal: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Author(s): Konstantinos Giannakopoulos*, Ursula Hoffmann, Uzair Ansari, Thomas Bertsch, Martin Borggrefe,Ibrahim Akin, Michael Behnes

Graphical Abstract:



Background: Despite the extended laboratory and clinical study of sepsis, its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. The initiation of sepsis activates many different biochemical and immunological pathways being expressed by alterations of various molecules in human tissues. The detection and measurement of the concentration of such molecules, known as biomarkers, may be a diagnostic tool of great significance for clinicians dealing with suspected sepsis. Additionally, biomarkers may predict patients ´ outcome and may play a role in monitoring response to therapy.

Methods: Most relevant clinical and experimental biomarker studies on sepsis were retrieved and reviewed in this article.

Results: Although many biomarkers were evaluated for the diagnosis and prognosis in sepsis, until now not one has been proven to be absolutely reliable in the clinical field. Currently C-reactive proteine (CPR) and procalcitonin (PCT) are used worldwide routinely, nevertheless their values may elevate in clinical settings without sepsis, while they often fail to provide reliable prediction of the patient outcome.
Conclusion: This review outlines most relevant circulating biomarkers in sepsis.
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OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE – Antiplasmodial Compounds from Leaves of Dodonaea angustifolia – Current Bioactive Compounds

Journal: Current Bioactive Compounds

Author(s): Yadessa Melaku, Tefera Worku, Yemane Tadesse, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Juergen Schmidt,Norbert Arnold, Ermias Dagne

Graphical Abstract:



Background: Dodonaea angustifolia is used in Ethiopian traditional medicine to treat malaria. The objective of this work was to conduct bioassay guided fractionation of the leaves of D. angustifolia using Plasmodium berghei infected mice.

Method: The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts and pure compounds was evaluated using the standard Peter’s four-day suppressive method. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using chemical and spectroscopic methods.

Results: In this study, the ethyl acetate soluble portion of the 80% aqueous MeOH extract of the leaves significantly suppressed parasitaemia in Plasmodium berghei infected mice (80.28% at 150 mg/kg). Three active compounds which exhibited significant percent suppression of parasitaemia by 81% at 40 mg/kg, 80% at 50 mg/kg and 70% at 40 mg/kg, respectively were identified. These are the flavanone pinocembrin (1), the flavanol santin (2) and the clerodane diterpene 2-hydroxy-15,16-epoxyceloda- 3,13(16),14-trien-18-oic acid (3). Under similar conditions, chloroquine suppressed parasitaemia by 100% at 25 mg/kg. Chemical study of the ethanol extract of the leaves yielded 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-3,6- dimethoxyflavone (4), ent-16-hydroxy-labdan-3,8-dihydroxy,13(14)-en-15,16-olide (5) and 5,6,7- trihydroxy-3,4′-dimethoxyflavone (6). Compound 6 has not been reported before as a natural product.
Conclusion: From the leaves of D. angustifolia, three compounds with significant antiplasmodial activities were isolated and characterized, with pinocembrin as the most active compound.


EDITOR’S CHOICE – C60-fullerenes as Drug Delivery Carriers for Anticancer Agents – Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology

Journal: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology

Author(s): Manish Kumar, Kaisar Raza

Graphical Abstract:



Background: C60-fullerenes (CFs) constitute a carbon-allotropic family with cage-like fused-ring structure, comprising of 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons. Since discovery in 1985, CFs attracted the scientists from various strata for unique properties like tensile strength, nanometeric size, symmetric nature, thermal and photo conductivity, chemical tailoring opportunities and drug loading capabilities. Surprisingly, CFs are also established to possess antiviral, neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, MRI contrast and antioxidant properties. Though extensively explored for chemical modifications and therapeutic benefits, CFs and derivatives also offer immense promises in drug delivery, especially to the cancerous cells.

Objective: The present review is an attempt to highlight the promises of CFs in drug delivery, esp. of anticancer agents. The review also analyzes the safety concerns of CF-based drug delivery and attempts to discuss the promises and challenges in the light of preclinical and clinical data.

Methods: The raw material (research/review articles) for the manuscript was collected from Pubmed, Google scholar and Scopus and the keywords used were fullerenes, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, functionalization, safety, drug delivery and biomedical applications.

Conclusion: The drug release rate controlling behavior, higher drug loading, immuno-neutrality, substantial biocompatibility, capability to bypass mononuclear phagocytic system, long circulating nature and tissue extraction by virtue of enhanced permeability and retention effect are the major promises of these nanocarriers. On the other hand, the concerns like elimination from the biological system, anticipated tissue toxicity, stability of the final product, sterility issues and commercial viability pose challenges in proper utilization of CFs as ideal drug delivery carriers. However, a few commercial products based on CFs with human safety evidences provide a ray of hope.

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Padmaja G

Contributed Article: “Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Dilute Acid Pretreatment for Enhanced Structural Breakdown and Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocellulo-Starch Biomass


Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs Volume 4, Issue 3

Current Genomics Volume 19, Issue 2

Current Immunology Reviews Volume 13, Issue 2



Meenal Gupta

Contributed Article: “Adsorption of Cu(II) by Low Cost Adsorbents: A Review


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EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering

Banner Alzheimer Institute
Phoenix, AZ