Most Cited Article – The Prognostic Effect of Clinical and Laboratory Findings on in-hospital Mortality in Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 Disease

Author(s):Ali JangjouRazieh Sadat Mousavi-Roknabadi*Hossein FaramarziAlireza NeydaniSeyed Rouhollah Hosseini-Marvast and Mostafa Moqadas

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 02 June, 2022

Page: [134 – 141]

Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220413113142


Background: COVID-19 is known as a global health issue, which can cause high morbidity and mortality in patients. It is necessary to identify biomarkers, clinical and laboratory findings and effects on patients’ mortality.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic effect of clinical and laboratory findings on in-hospital mortality in patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study (February-August 2020) was conducted on adult patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in one of the main reference hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, southern Iran. Patients with uncompleted or missed medical files were excluded from the study. Clinical and laboratory findings were extracted from the patients’ medical files and then analyzed. The patients were categorized and later compared as survivor and nonsurvivors groups.

Results: 345 patients were enrolled and 205 (59.4%) were male. The mean±SD of age was 53.67±16.97 years, and 32 (9.3%) out of the total did not survive. Hypertension (28.4%) and diabetes (25.5%) were the most prevalent comorbidities. All clinical symptoms were similar in both groups, except fever, which was observed significantly more in nonsurvivors (P=0.027). The duration of hospitalization was 9.20±5.62 (range; 2-42) days, which was higher in nonsurvivors (P<0.001). The results of Multivariate Logistic Regression Model showed that CRP (OR=1.032, P=0.01) and INR (OR=48.88, P=0.049) were the predictor factors for in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Conclusion: The current study showed that in-hospital mortality was 9.3%. It was found that CRP and INR were the predictor factors for in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. Read now:

Most Cited Article – Indacaterol Acetate/Glycopyrronium Bromide/Mometasone Furoate: A Combination Therapy for Asthma

Author(s):Alberto Papi*Konstantinos KostikasIvan Nikolaev and Ioannis Kottakis

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 24 March, 2022

Page: [77 – 85]

Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220217151845


Despite the wide range of available therapies, asthma remains uncontrolled in 40-65% of patients for a number of different reasons. Treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) is recommended in the Global Initiative for Asthma 2021 report for patients across all asthma severities, with treatment options combining an ICS with a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) or a LABA and a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), depending on disease severity. Based on this, the availability of a single inhaler fixed-dose ICS/LABA/LAMA combination is a major need in asthma management. Indacaterol acetate/glycopyrronium bromide/mometasone furoate has been developed as a once-daily inhaled asthma treatment that combines an ICS (mometasone furoate), a LABA (indacaterol acetate), and a LAMA (glycopyrronium bromide) in a formulation delivered using the dry powder inhaler Breezhaler®, for patients with uncontrolled asthma on medium- or high-dose ICS/LABA. This article provides an overview of the different and complementary mechanisms of action and the clinical effectiveness of the monocomponents of the indacaterol/glycopyrronium/ mometasone furoate fixed combination and highlights the benefits of using the three agents in combination in patients with moderate and severe asthma. Read now:

Most Cited Article – A Literature Review of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)

Author(s):Ashima Panchal*Jigar PanchalSonika Jain and Jaya Dwivedi

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 29 April, 2022

Page: [104 – 114]

Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220217151152


In 1891, German doctor E. Romberg was the first to report PAH. It is widespread throughout the world, but it is particularly problematic in India and other developing countries. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterised by an increase in pulmonary arterial pressure as well as the emergence of progressive symptoms, such as a loss of functional ability, shortness of breath, and fatigue.

Blood flows from the right side of the heart to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary arterial pressure refers to the pressure in the arteries of the lungs (PAH). It necessitates immediate treatment because high blood pressure in the lungs causes the right side of the heart to work much harder, increasing the risk of heart failure. This article aimed to provide brief information about the prevalence, pathology, classification, and different therapies of PAH. Read now:

Most Cited Article – Susceptibility to Rhinovirus-induced Early Wheezing as a Risk Factor for Subsequent Asthma Development

Author(s):Hannele Mikkola*Minna HonkilaTerhi Tapiainen and Tuomas Jartti

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 03 January, 2022

Page: [86 – 94]

Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220103113813


Rhinovirus is one of the two most common viral agents that cause bronchiolitis in young children. During the first 12 months, it is second to the respiratory syncytial virus, but after 12 months, it begins dominating the statistics. Wheezing and dry cough are typical clinical symptoms indicative of rhinovirus-induced bronchiolitis, although overlap of symptoms with other virus infections is common. Several studies have shown that atopic predisposition and reduced interferon responses increase susceptibility to rhinovirus-induced wheezing. More recent studies have found that certain genetic variations at strong asthma loci also increase susceptibility. Rhinovirus-induced wheezing in the early years of life is known to increase the risk of subsequent asthma development and may be associated with airway remodeling. This risk is increased by aeroallergen sensitization. Currently, there are no clinically approved preventive treatments for asthma. However, studies show promising results indicating that children with rhinovirus-affected first-time wheezing respond to bronchodilators in terms of less short-term symptoms and that controlling airway inflammatory responses with anti-inflammatory medication may markedly decrease asthma development. Also, enhancing resistance to respiratory viruses has been a topic of discussion. Primary and secondary prevention strategies are being developed with the aim of decreasing the incidence of asthma. Here, we review the current knowledge on rhinovirus-induced early wheezing as a risk factor for subsequent asthma development and related asthma-prevention strategies. Read now:

Aims & Scope – Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews

ISSN (Print): 1573-398X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6387

Latest Issue: Volume 18 , Issue 2 , 2022

Aims & Scope

Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews publishes original research papers, frontier reviews/mini-reviews, drug clinical trial studies and guest-edited issues, dedicated to clinical research on all the latest advances in respiratory diseases and their related areas (i.e., pharmacology, pathogenesis, clinical care and therapeutics). The journal is essential reading for all clinicians and researchers in the fields of respiratory medicine and associated specialties. In addition, it also covers a wide variety of topics that show the relationship between respiratory and lung diseases, as well as cardiovascular and thoracic diseases. Read now:

Open Access Article – Case-control Association Study of Autoimmunity Associated Variants in PDCD1 and Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Author(s):Christina TejedaAlaine K. BroadawayMichael J. OmbrelloMilton R. BrownLori A. PonderMina Rohani PichavantGabriel WangSheila Angeles-HanAimee HershJohn BohnsackKaren N. ConneelyMichael Epstein and Sampath Prahalad*

Volume 13, Issue 3, 2017

Page: [219 – 223]

Pages: 5

DOI: 10.2174/1573397113666170104123113


Purpose: Variants in the gene encoding Programmed Cell Death-1 (PDCD1) have been associated with susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. Given that clinically distinct autoimmune phenotypes share common genetic susceptibility factors, variants in PDCD-1 were tested for a possible association with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA).

Methods: Four Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPS) in the PDCD1 gene were genotyped and analyzed: rs7421861, rs11568821, rs10204525, and rs7568402 in 834 cases and 855 controls of Northern European ancestry. Each variant was examined for possible associations with JIA and then analyzed for association with JIA categories.

Results: PDCD1 variants showed no association with JIA in the cohort overall (rs7421861 p=0.63, rs11568821 p=0.13, rs10204525 p=0.31, and rs7568402 p=0.45). Stratification by JIA categories indicated a significant association between systemic JIA and PDCD1 rs7568402 (OR=0.53, p=0.0027), which remained significant after 10,000 permutations, but was not replicated in an independent multi-ethnic systemic JIA cohort. A nominal association between enthesitis-related arthritis and rs115668821 was also observed (OR=0.22, p=0.012).

Conclusion: Unlike other multiple autoimmune disease associated genetic variants, there was no association between PDCD1 variants and JIA or JIA categories Read now:

Open Access Article – Potential Role of Rebamipide in Osteoclast Differentiation and Mandibular Condylar Cartilage Homeostasis

Author(s):Takashi Izawa*Islamy Rahma Hutami and Eiji Tanaka

Volume 14, Issue 1, 2018

Page: [62 – 69]

Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1573397113666171017113441


Background: Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) is a degenerative disease that involves changes in subchondral bone and progressive degradation of cartilage. Currently, rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, is administered to protect gastric mucosa and accelerate ulcer healing.

Objectives: Recent studies have shown that rebamipide also attenuates cartilage degeneration by suppressing oxidative damage and inducing homeostasis of the extracellular matrix of articular chondrocytes. Regarding the latter, reduced expression of cathepsin K, NFATc1, c-Src, and integrin β3, and increased expression of nuclear factor-kappa B, have been found to be mediated by the transcription factor, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL).

Methods: Treatment with rebamipide was also found to activate, mitogen-activated protein kinases such as p38, ERK, and JNK to reduce osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that rebamipide mediates inhibitory effects on cartilage degradation and osteoclastogenesis in TMJ-OA.

Results and Conclusion: Here, we highlight recent evidence regarding the potential for rebamipide to affect osteoclast differentiation and TMJ-OA pathogenesis. We also discuss the potential role of rebamipide to serve as a new strategy for the treatment of TMJ-OA. Read now:

Open Access Article – Wallet Neuritis – An Example of Peripheral Sensitization

Author(s):Md Abu Bakar Siddiq*Israt Jahan and SAM Masihuzzaman

Volume 14, Issue 3, 2018

Page: [279 – 283]

Pages: 5

DOI: 10.2174/1573397113666170310100851


Background: Wallet neuritis is an example of extra-spinal tunnel neuropathy concerning sciatic nerve. Its clinical appearance often gets confused with sciatica of lumbar spine origin. Wallet- induced chronic sciatic nerve constriction produces gluteal and ipsilateral lower extremity pain, tingling, and burning sensation. It was Lutz, first describing credit-card wallet sciatica in an Attorney, surfaced on Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA), 1978; however, the condition has not been well-studied in various other occupations.

Case Summary: In this write-up, we take the privilege of demonstrating wallet neuritis as an example of peripheral sensitization in three different professionals’ namely specialist doctor, driver, and banker first time in Bangladesh. All the three patients’ demonstrated aggravated gluteal pain with radiation on the homo-lateral lower extremity while remained seated on heavy wallet for a while, fortunately improved discontinuing such stuff with. Alongside radical wallectomy, piriformis stretching exercise on the affected side had also been recommended and found worthy in terms of pain relief.

Conclusion: long-standing use of rear pocket wallet may compress and sensitize ipsilateral sciatic nerve, generating features resembling lumbago sciatica; thereby, remains a source of patients’ misery and diagnostic illusion for pain physicians as well. Read now:

Open Access Article – Interleukin 6 Concentration in Synovial Fluid of Patients with Inflammatory and Degenerative Arthritis

Author(s):Anna Mihailova*

Volume 18, Issue 3, 2022

Published on: 25 March, 2022

Page: [230 – 233]

Pages: 4

DOI: 10.2174/1874471015666220128113319


Aim: The present study aims to compare interleukin 6 concentration in synovial fluid in patients with known types of arthritis.

Background: Persistent synovitis without known markers, such as Rheumatoid Factor (RF), Anti- Citrullinated Protein Antibodies (ACPA), and genetic markers as HLA-B27, is not uncommon. It is valuable to determine the presence of chronic inflammation and put it in correlation with agerelated changes, which are especially relevant for middle-aged patients with mono- or oligoarthritis, when the dilemma to start disease-modifying drugs for inflammatory disease often is present. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) plays a significant role in chronic inflammation.

Objectives: IL-6 concentration in synovial fluid reflects the presence and activity of joint inflammation.

Methods: Synovial fluid was obtained from 101 patients with chronic synovitis. IL-6 concentration was determined by the immunochemical luminescence method.

Results: The median IL-6 concentration in synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) was 138.0 pg/ml (interquartile range (IQR) 43.4 to 296.0); in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was 2516.5 pg/ml, (IQR 1136.0 to 25058.0); in reactive arthritis 2281.0 pg/ml (IQR 1392.0 to 8652.0); psoriatic arthritis 1964.0 pg/ml (IQR 754.0 to 7300.0); ankylosing spondylitis 2776.0 pg/ml (IQR 514.7, 3944.0); in a group with negative RF, ACPA and HLA-B27 inflammatory arthritis 2163.0 pg/ml (IQR 822.0 to 7875.0). There is statistically significant difference of IL-6 concentration comparing OA and each inflammatory arthritis group, p<0.0001.

Conclusion: IL-6 detection in the synovial fluid is helpful in arthritis evaluation. The results show that an IL-6 level over 1000 pg/ml suggests the diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis. Read now:

Editor’s Choice – Evaluating the Efficacy of Intra-articular Injections of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients and its Impact on Inflammatory Cytokines, Disease Activity and Quality of Life

Author(s):Dalia S. Saif*Nagwa N. Hegazy and Enas S. Zahran

Volume 17, Issue 2, 2021

Published on: 13 November, 2020

Page: [232 – 241]

Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1573397116666201113090629


Background: Among rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA), general disease activity is well regulated by disease-modifying anti-rheumatic medications (DMARDS), but sometimes local inflammation still persists among a few joints. Adjuvant modern molecular interventions as Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) with a suggested down regulating effect on inflammatory mediators has a proven effect in the management of RA.We aim to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intra-articular PRP versus steroid in RA patients and their impact on inflammatory cytokines IL1B, TNF α, local joint inflammation, disease activity and quality of life (QL).

Methods: Open-labeled parallel randomized control clinical trial was carried out on 60 RA patients randomly divided into 2 groups, Group 1: included 30 patients received 3 intra-articular injections of PRP at a monthly interval, Group 2: included 30 patients received single intra-articular injection of steroid. They were subjected to clinical, laboratory, serum IL1B and TNF α assessment at baseline and at 3, and 6 months post injection.

Results: Patients of both groups showed improvements in their scores of evaluating tools at 3months post injection and this improvement was persistent in the PRP group up to 6 months post injection while it was continued only for 3 months in the steroid group.

Conclusion: PRP is a safe, effective and useful therapy in treating RA patients who had an insufficient response and persistent pain and inflammation in just one or two joints through its down regulating effect on inflammatory cytokines IL1B, TNF α with subsequent improvement of local joint inflammation, disease activity and QL. Read now:

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