Contribution by Indian Authors, in BSP Journal: Current Nanoscience

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1. Olanzapine Loaded Cationic Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Improved Oral Bioavailability

Author(s): Sumeet Sood, Natarajan Jawahar, Kunal Jain, Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan and Subramania Nainar Meyyanathan

Affiliation: Dept. of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, Tamilnadu-643001, India.

Abstract

Olanzapine, a lipophilic antipsychotic drug, has poor oral bioavailability due to hepatic first-pass metabolism. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of Olanzapine were developed using lipids (Stearic acid and Glyceryl monostearate), soy lecithin, poloxamer 188 and charge modifier stearyl amine by microemulsion technique. The aim of this research was to find out whether the bioavailability of olanzapine can be improved by administering olanzapine SLN orally to Wistar rats. Area under curve was increased (up to 4-fold) and clearance was decreased when olanzapine entrapped in SLNs with stearylamine were administered orally compared with that of olanzapine suspension. The enhanced relative bioavailability by the SLNs formulation might be attributed to avoidance of first-pass hepatic metabolism by intestinal lymphatic transport, direct uptake of nanoparticles through the GI tract, increased permeability by surfactants, and decreased degradation and clearance. These results indicate that olanzapine can be loaded into solid lipid nanoparticles for improvement of its oral bioavailability.

2. Extra- and Intracellular Gold Nanoparticles Synthesis Using Live Peanut Callus Cells

Author(s): D. Raju, Urmil J. Mehta and Absar Ahmad

Affiliation: Biochemical Sciences Division and Plant Tissue Culture Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune – 411008, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

An important challenge of considerable topical significance in nanotechnology is the development of eco-friendly experimental processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials in large quantities with variable sizes, shapes and chemical compositions. Green synthesis routes for the production of inorganic metal nanoparticles using whole cell of microorganisms and plant extracts are gaining tremendous popularity as these are non-toxic, cheap and occur at ambient conditions. The present work emphasizes on gold nanoparticles synthesis protocol using live plant callus cells. Peanut callus cells when incubated with HAuCl4 solution in ambient conditions reduced the precursor and lead to formation of well dispersed, water soluble extracellular and intracellular gold nanoparticles within 24 hours. The biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and further characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED). The particle size distribution shows that the average particle size is 50 nm for extra- and 31 nm for intracellular gold nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may be stabilized by proteins secreted by callus cells. The reduction process is believed to occur enzymatically, thus creating the possibility of a rational, plant cell-based method for the synthesis of nanoparticles over a wide range of chemical compositions.

Nanoparticulate Carrier Mediated Intranasal Delivery of Insulin for the Restoration of Memory Signaling in Alzheimer’s Disease

Author(s): Pankaj Dwivedi, Rakesh Kumar Tekade and Narendra Kumar Jain

Affiliation: Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar 470 003, India.

Abstract

The present study was aimed to determine the therapeutic potential of novel carriers to deliver insulin into brain, by passing the BBB. PLGA nanoparticles and PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsification method. PEG-PLGA copolymer was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR and Mass spectroscopies. The release profiles of drug in various formulations were studied in PBS (pH 7.4). Results showed more sustained release of drug with Tween-80 based formulation in comparison with Tween-20 and PVA based formulations. A more sustained and extended release was observed upon chitosan coating of PEG-PLGA nanoparticles. Blood glucose level monitoring suggested that glucose level was not decreased significally in the peripheral region (p>0.05), when chitosan coated insulin loaded PEGylated nanoparticle was administered by intranasal route. This outcome in particular along with expected mucoadhesive and targeted benefit associated with chitosan based formulation drove us to conclude this formulation to be working best for the undertaken brain delivery issue.

For details on our journal, please click on: Current Nanoscience

Author: Bentham Science Publishers

A major STM journal publisher of more than 100 online and print journals and related print/online book series, Bentham Science answers the information needs of scientists in the fields of pharmaceutical, biomedical, medical, engineering, technology, computer and social sciences.

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