Smoking cigarettes or taking tobacco in any form is widely accepted to be a dire peril for the health of those who smoke. Tobacco directly affects the lungs and causes serious issues for the respiratory system. Having known it as a fact, still people are barely ready to give it up. In fact more and more smokers, mostly youngsters, are taking up this sinister habit.
Apart from self-reporting, there is little chance that the guardians would know about their children’s smoking because they often do it when they are far from the house and school. We can expect that they would not accept the act so easily. Firstly, smoking is thrilling. Secondly, it gives the idea to the young smokers that they have grown up. Lastly, it is thoroughly addictive. But, nevertheless, it is immensely harmful and puts its victims into serious health troubles. Then, what should be done?
Researchers from Clinical Neuroscience Division, Medical University of South Carolina have proposed that technology should be used to report about the smoking habit. There can be apps and software working with the hardware to identify and potentially stop people from using tobacco. The research paper, The Remote Monitoring of Smoking in Adolescents, proposing the idea was published in, Adolescent Psychiatry.
Author(s): Barry Dellinger, Lavrent Khachatryan, Sofia Masko and Slawomir Lomnicki
Abstract: A critical examination of the literature on gas-phase free radicals and TPM-associated EPFRs in cigarette smoke is presented. These radicals participate in catalytic cycles that generate ROS that can result in oxidative stress. It seems that primary radicals originate from the direct decomposition of tobacco constituents and are linked to the chemical structure of the constituents and the temperature of pyrolysis. On the other hand, secondary radicals are generated during aging of smoke. Their EPR spectra are indicative of hydroquinone and catechol. Lignin, chlorogenic acid, and proteins are major precursors of EPFRs in TPM, but combinations of components form more secondary radicals than the sum of the individual components, suggesting a synergistic role of TPM in the formation and the stabilization of secondary radicals.
Read more about this research here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/mini-reviews-in-organic-chemistry/volume/8/issue/4/page/427/
Author(s): Karen M. Wilson and Emily Weis
Abstract: Tobacco Smoke (TS) exposure is an important cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. Estimates suggest that over 50% of US children are exposed to tobacco smoke, and 40% of children internationally. TS exposure has been linked with many specific diseases and social conditions. It is especially prevalent amongst children who live in poverty, and is associated with increased rates of food insecurity. Children who are exposed miss more school, and thus may miss important educational opportunities. Compounding this, exposed children show deficits in cognitive abilities, and increased behavioral problems. TS causes oxidative stress and changes in the immune system, which may result in lower antioxidant levels, and increased rates of asthma and other atopic diseases. In addition to asthma, TS exposure increases the risk and severity of respiratory diseases, including bronchiolitis and tuberculosis. TS exposure in children has been associated with diseases of other systems as well, including inflammatory bowel disease, leukemia, dental caries, and sudden infant death syndrome. Finally, we are starting to understand that the link between TS exposure and cardiovascular disease may begin in childhood, with exposed children having higher rates of metabolic syndrome, and measurable changes in their vascular contractility. Efforts need to continue worldwide to prevent childrens exposure to this toxic and harmful product.
Read more here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-pediatric-reviews/volume/7/issue/2/page/76/
Author(s): Aurelio Leone and Linda Landini
Abstract: Both conduit and resistance arterial vessels may show vascular morphological and functional alterations due to cigarette smoking. Pathological lesions involve the arterial wall or intravascular lumen with, primarily, narrowing and thrombo-embolic events as an effect of endothelial and blood cell changes related to smoking. Functional disorders are the result of a wide spectrum of biochemical, physiological and metabolic factors. While conduit vessel alterations have been widely investigated, little is known about the changes induced by smoking on the microcirculation. It would seem that the endothelium, platelet aggregation and adhesiveness, nervous system and metabolic changes play a role in damaging resistance arteries and, then, the microcirculation. The result of these effects changes the blood flow and perfusion particularly to the heart, brain and kidney. Alterations of the microcirculation can cause severe and widespread damage because, in addition to the complications of the atherosclerotic lesion which characterizes large arteries, there is a failure of body organs linked to the degree of microvascular damage. Moreover, it seems that 2 major compounds of cigarette smoke are capable of determining vascular damage; initially, nicotine acts preferably on large arteries and carbon monoxide on small arteries, although both compounds damage the vascular system.
Find out more here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-vascular-pharmacology/volume/11/issue/4/page/524/
World No-Tobacco Day is observed every year on the 31st of May, to highlight the harmful effects it causes to the smokers and the passive smokers as well and encouraging the masses to realize the need to quit.
Bentham Science Publishers is in the forefront in creating awareness about this through the research in the journals Current Drug Abuse Reviews and Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews
The most common drug abuse on our planet is not even thought of as a drug abuse – that is caffeine addiction. Everyday more than 90% of people wake up to begin their day with a cup of tea or coffee. Then, throughout the day till they go to bed again they have arguably consumed a cup or more. Still it is not taken as an addiction as it is apparently harmless.
Nonetheless, this addiction has its set-backs which takes the toll on people.
- Coffee increases stress levels – Having more than three cups of coffee raises blood pressure and stress level. If you are already dealing with pressures, it is strongly advised to keep a check on caffeine consumption.
- Caffeine causes aging – It dehydrates the body and reduces production of certain vital enzymes which helps to keep you young.
- It drains minerals – Caffeine drinks cause the calcium, magnesium, potassium etc to release out of the body through urine. It renders the bones to erode.
- It perturbs sleep – As caffeine is an alerting drug, it disrupts sleep pattern. This adversely affects the body and mind in the long run.
- Caffeine is addictive – Anything that makes you ask for it again and again is addictive. Caffeine causes the feeling and so should be avoided.
Author: Giovanni Modanese
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Author(s): G. Fenu, L. Lorefice, F. Frau, G.C. Coghe, M.G. Marrosu and E Cocco
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system. Pharmacological therapy of MS includes symptomatic drugs, treatment for relapses (corticosteroid and intravenous immunoglobulin) and disease modifying drugs (DMDs) defined as pharmacological agents that have an impact on relapse rate, disability accumulation and radiological outcomes. Two different therapeutic approaches are widely used in MS: escalation and induction therapy. Escalation therapy consists of an early start with first line DMDs (beta interferon, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate) and if DMDs are ineffective or partially effective, switching to second line drugs (mitoxantrone, natalizumab, fingolimod). Induction therapy consists of the early use of immunosuppressant drugs followed by long-term maintenance treatment, generally with immunomodulatory agents.
Read more here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/anti-inflammatory-and-anti-allergy-agents-in-medicinal-chemistry/volume/14/issue/1/page/26/