Journal: Current Psychiatry Reviews
Author(s): Jay M. Weiss, Katherine A. Boss-Williams
This paper describes an animal (rat) model for the study of Bipolar Disorder (BD) in humans. The paper presents research, previously unpublished, conducted over more than 25 years. The model is derived from a natural genetic variant discovered in the rat population; these rats having been all brothers and sisters (littermates) from a single litter that was observed to be hyperactive in the home cage. The original animals were first inbred and then the offsprings were selectively-bred for more than 50 generations; this line of rats that proved to be a model for BD was named the Hyperactive (HYPER) rat.
Findings presented here indicate that this rat model shows similarity to human BD with respect to the four criteria used to judge/validate any animal model of a human psychological/ psychiatric disorder: (1) etiology, (2) symptomatology, (3) underlying pathophysiology, and (4) responsiveness to treatments that are effective for the human disorder. To summarize, HYPER rats mimic manic behavior by showing an outburst of extreme hyperactivity that lasts for several days after being exposed to a stressor, and also can show pronounced and prolonged post-stress depression of home-cage activity; moreover, critical for modeling BD, HYPER rats assessed for 2-4 months show “cycling” between manic-like outbursts and depression. (Note: prolonged depression occurs in HYPER rats after a single acute stressor event and therefore represents the first rat model to meet the DSM criterion for appropriate duration of depressive symptoms [persisting for more than 14 days] following a discrete precipitating event). The HYPER rat also manifests other characteristics seen in human BD – high levels of anxiety, a hyper-responsive pituitary-adrenal axis, elevated consumption of alcohol, anhedonia (indicated by reduced propensity to consume highly palatable sucrose solutions), cognitive differences from normal animals, abnormal midbrain dopaminergic transmission, and skin lesions that point to genetic similarity to humans with BD. Finally, the behavioral abnormalities of HYPER rats that mimic BD also respond to drugs used in the treatment of BD in humans; their manic-like outburst of extreme hyperactivity when exposed to stress is blocked by treatment with lithium or valproate. Lithium treatment also reduces “cycling” of HYPER rats that results in fewer cycles and less severe cycling. The HYPER rat model shows the most extensive list of similarities to human BD reported to date. Insofar as this model was not produced experimentally but instead arose as a natural genetic variant, thereby reproducing human BD in this important respect, this would seem to add considerably to its attraction as a model of BD. The promise of the HYPER rat is that it embodies critical aspects of human BD in a rodent.A Summary Table listing all phenomena observed in the HYPER rat relevant to human BD can be found near the conclusion of this article.In view of the behavioral similarities shown by the HYPER rat to critical behavioral characteristics of BD in humans, the HYPER rat would seem extremely useful as a means to test/screen potential new treatments for BD. Additionally, apparent similarities of pathophysiology and indications of similar genetics of the HYPER rat to human BD supports its study to look for underlying causes of BD, and also its use in genetic investigations where it can be employed using some of the latest techniques, such as transcriptomics and RNA-Seq analysis, that are presently not possible in humans.
Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/151319
To access this article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/152533
Providing a focal point to push industry collaboration through updates on clinical advancements and investment opportunities, SMi presents the 20th annual Superbugs & Superdrugs conference which will return to Central London on 19th and 20th March 2018.
The threat of AMR is regularly making front page news but what is the industry actually doing? Are drug manufacturers any closer to finding a solution and how is the government helping? These will be just some of the questions answered through powerful keynote addresses delivered by an expert panel of scientific leaders from Nemesis Bioscience, ABAC Therapeutics, Oppilotech, Gladius Pharmaceuticals, Pew Charitable Trusts, Blueberry Therapeutics, UNT Health Science Center, ContraFect, SCYNEXIS; and government bodies such as MHRA and DNDi. The full speaker line-up and conference agenda is available at http://www.superbugssuperdrugs.com/bentham
Relevant Journal: Anti-Infective Agents
Relevant EBook: Frontiers in Anti-Infective Drug Discovery
World Stroke Day observed annually on October 29th, provides an opportunity for stroke stakeholders to coordinate awareness and advocacy campaigns and build commitment to reducing the burden of stroke at global, regional and local level.
Bentham Science is among the front-runners that publish latest research studies on prevention and cures for stroke and related problems. The most popular Bentham Science journals in this subject area are:
Current Neurovascular Research
CNS & Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets
Hebei University of Technology is a public university whose main campus lies in the Guangrong Dao neighborhood of the Hongqiao District in Tianjin, China. It is the first institute of technology in modern Chinese education history. It is among the first group of institutions of higher learning in the national “211-Project” to which priority is given in funding.
To access this article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/153449
Current Organocatalysis and Synthetic Methods: Expanded Aims & Scope
Viewing the present situation in chemistry research, Bentham Science Publishers continues to explore new ideas and concepts. This has been demonstrated by launching several new journals and also expanding the scope of the existing journals. We have been publishing Current Organocatalysis for the past three years. However, we were unable to accept a number of manuscripts since those were not related to organocatalysis, but they were related to synthetic methods. Therefore, we have decided to expand the scope and aim of Current Organocatalysis and give it a new name, Current Organocatalysis and Synthetic Methodsstarting from January, 2018.
Current Organocatalysis and Synthetic Methods is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes significant research in all areas of organocatalysis. The journal covers organo homogeneous/heterogeneous catalysis, innovative mechanistic studies and kinetics of organocatalytic processes, focusing on practical, theoretical and computational aspects. It also includes potential applications of organocatalysts in the fields of drug discovery, synthesis of novel molecules, synthetic method development, green chemistry and chemoenzymatic reactions.
This journal also covers new methods, reagents, mechanisms of chemical synthesis. New synthetic methods have become extremely popular for the preparation of simple to structurally complex molecules. For example, in many instances it is necessary to demonstrate the usefulness of the new methods. An effective method produces products with high yield in an economical way. There is an existing challenge to identify appropriate synthetic methods that are diastereoselective, enantioselective, and chemoselective. Synthesis of molecules that have commercial interest due to their medicinal importance and the extraction of natural products by new methods requires careful thinking, design and execution. Development of efficient reagents and conditions are necessary for the retrosynthetic analysis that is dependent on a small part of the desired molecules. Current Organocatalysis and Synthetic Methods accepts papers, reviews, short communications, and perspectives. It is the premier source information related to the fields of of organocatalysis and synthetic methods n for chemists, biologists and engineers pursuing research in industry and academia.
For more information, please visit: https://benthamscience.com/journals/current-organocatalysis/
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