Author(s): Marissa Williams, Yuen Y. Cheng, Cherie Blenkiron, Glen Reid*
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at a posttranscriptional level. Each miRNA controls the expression of multiple messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and their dysregulation has been implicated in multiple cancer phenotypes. While some miRNAs are upregulated, global downregulation of miRNA expression is often the rule in cancer. A multitude of potential mechanisms drive aberrant miRNA expression in cancer; miRNA coding regions can harbour genomic defects including mutations, amplifications or deletions, and some miRNAs are broadly repressed by transcription factors such as Myc or have epigenetic modifications to their promoter regions such as hypermethylation of CpG islands. Additionally, the suppression of components of the miRNA processing machinery has been shown to reduce mature miRNA expression and contribute to the malignant phenotype. Understanding the mechanisms driving miRNA downregulation is important in uncovering the critical and complex role of miRNAs in cancer biology. This review will outline the multiple mechanisms by which cancer cells suppress miRNA expression.
Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/148230/article
Current Enzyme Inhibition aims to publish original research, review and letter articles in all the latest and outstanding developments on enzyme inhibition studies. The coverage includes the mechanisms of inhibitory processes of enzymes, recognition of active sites, and the discovery of agonists and antagonists, leading to the design and development of new drugs of significant therapeutic value. Current Enzyme Inhibition is an essential journal for every pharmaceutical researcher and medicinal chemist who wishes to have up-to-date knowledge about each and every development in the study of enzyme inhibition.
Articles from the journal Recent Patents on Current Enzyme Inhibition Volume 14, Issue 1:
For details on the articles, please visit this link: https://bit.ly/2GvzmfU
Current Neuropharmacology aims to provide current, timely and comprehensive reviews and guest edited issues of all areas of neuropharmacology and related matters of neuroscience. The reviews cover the fields of molecular, cellular, and systems/behavioural aspects of neuropharmacology and neuroscience.
The journal serves as a comprehensive, multidisciplinary expert forum for neuropharmacologists and neuroscientists.
Articles from the journal Current Neuropharmacology Volume 16, Issue 3:
For details on the articles, please visit this link: https://bit.ly/2GqzL2V
Journal: Current Organic Chemistry
Author(s): Dávid Illés Nagy, Alajos Grün, István Greiner, Gyorgy Keglevich
Background: Although the synthesis of α-hydroxymethylenebisphosphonic acids (dronic acids) and derivatives by reaction of the corresponding carboxylic acids (or its derivatives) with P-reagents, such as phosphorus trichloride, phosphorous acid and phosphoryl chloride formed the subject of many studies, in most cases, the selection of the P-reagents, their ratio, and the conditions (solvent and temperature) were not optimized.
Method: Selection of the appropriate P-reagents and their ratios, along with the conditions is possible, only if the reaction protocol (sequence of the steps) or the mechanism is known. For this purpose, the relevant information was extracted from the literature, critically discussed and the conclusions were drawn. Our own experiences are also summarized on the possible mechanisms, and on the related optimum set of the reaction parameters depending mainly on the nature of the solvent used.
Conclusion: This review gives a better understanding of the dronate chemistry, and promotes “greener” and more practical syntheses.
Journal: CNS & Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets
Author(s): Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli*
Background & Objective: Since its initial discovery, current understanding on the functional role of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) in physiology and in pathology has impressively grown, especially in consideration of its large ligand repertoire (AGEs, HMGB-1, β amyloid, S100B/S100A12) and its potential involvement in the pathophysiology of several chronic human disorders. Downstream RAGE engagement by its ligands, NF-κB signaling activation has been demonstrated in several cell phenotypes, including neurons and glia. Based on the observation that in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) brain expression of RAGE and its ligands is upregulated and that RAGE/NF-κB axis activation can trigger an autoregulatory loop which further amplifies neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, this signaling pathway has been hypothesized to greatly contribute to AD pathophysiology. Herein we review the vast array of information supporting a detrimental role of RAGE/NF-κB axis activation in AD brain and discuss those data in the context of recent findings obtained in our laboratory pointing to an unexpected effect elicited by this signaling pathway which may rather contribute to reparative mechanisms in AD, namely positive modulation of adult neurogenesis. Interestingly, the proneurogenic effect resulting from RAGE/NF-κB axis activation could be induced by molecules which are commonly considered as mediators of toxicity, like Aβ oligomers and HMGB-1.
Conclusion: Altogether, despite a large set of data suggesting that RAGE may represent an interesting target for the pharmacological treatment of AD, the complex functional roles of the receptor would require the use of molecules able to counteract RAGE negative effects without altering the positive ones such as the promotion of adult neurogenesis.
Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/144506/article
The University of Pannonia, with its seat in Veszprém, is operating in the picturesque cities on the lands of the former Roman province, Pannonia. The five faculties of the university offer high quality education supported by cutting edge research activity and student friendly environment. In order to meet the needs of the labor market, our activities are carried out in close cooperation with the regional industrial partners and local governments. Based on the professional achievements of our faculty staff and the internationally recognized R&D results, the University of Pannonia is ranked among the best Hungarian universities. The degree obtained at our University is an acknowledged, valuable certificate providing a solid basis for successful career perspectives. To improve cultural experiences, our campuses maintain decades and century long traditions of student life. I encourage every visitor to browse our website and collect information about the possibilities offered by the University of Pannonia.
Journal: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Author(s): Michele M. Luchetti*, Devis Benfaremo, Armando Gabrielli.
Background: Biologic drugs, introduced in clinical practice almost twenty years ago, represent nowadays a prominent treatment option in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis, such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis, that include ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.
Methods: Several compounds targeting different pathways have been marketed and approved for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, with a significant impact on the clinical outcomes and the natural history of the diseases.
Results: There are currently seven classes of biologics that are available for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, each inhibiting a different aspect of the immune-driven inflammatory pathway.
• Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) inhibitors (infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab and certolizumab pegol);
• Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonists (anakinra);
• Interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibition (tocilizumab);
• Interleukin-12/23 (IL23) inhibition (ustekinumab);
• Interleukin-17 (IL-17) inhibition (secukinumab);
• B-cell inhibition (anti-CD20, rituximab);
• T-cell costimulation inhibition (anti-CTLA-4, abatacept).
Conclusion: In this review, we will focus on the role of biologic drugs in the treatment strategies for inflammatory arthritis.
Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/158616/article