THOUGHT OF THE DAY

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New Issue :: Current Applied Polymer Science 2, Issue 1

Current Applied Polymer Science publishes expert review articles and thematic issues in all applied aspects of polymer science including composites, nano polymeric composites and molecular composites, It includes biodegradable polymers, polysaccharides and other natural polymers, membranes, energy conversion and storage, conducting polymers, biomedical implants, and synthetic polymers. It will cover miscible and compatible polymer blends, amorphous and semi-crystallline polymer blends, rubber toughened and elastomeric blends, self-reinforced blends, interpenetrating networks and all other aspects of polymer science as applied to various fields of pharmaceuticals, industrial manufacture, health, agriculture, new materials and other areas.

Articles from the journal Current Applied Polymer Science Volume 2, Issue 1:

For details on the articles, please visit this link :: https://bit.ly/2xppS2a

EDITOR’S CHOICE – Manganese Peroxidase from Luffa acutangula Fruit Juice

Journal: Current Biochemical Engineering

Author(s): N. Rai, M. Yadav*, H.S. Yadav

Graphical Abstract:

 

Abstract:

Background: Only one manganese peroxidase from Musa paradisiaca leaf has been purified and characterized but from other plant sources are still to be reported with efficient manganese peroxidase activity.

Objective: To assay enzyme activity and to study the enzymatic properties like Km, pH optima and temperature optima of the manganese peroxidase present in Luffa acutangula fruit juice. To study the nature of inhibition by different inhibitors on manganese peroxidase.

Method: Fresh L. acutangula fruit was cut, crushed, squeezed and centrifuged to get the clear juice extract. Manganese peroxidase activity was assayed and the steady state enzyme kinetics of the MnP catalysed reaction was studied spectrophotometrically at λ=270nm. The pH optima and the temperature optima of the enzyme was determined by measuring the steady state velocity of enzyme catalysed reaction in reaction solutions of varying pH and at varying temperature. The steady state velocity of enzyme catalyzed reaction was monitored at different concentrations of inhibitors.

Results: The Michaelis Menten constants for the enzyme for Mn(II) and H2O2 were 22µM and 20µM. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 4 and 22 °C. Sodium azide showed uncompetitive type whereas ethylenediamine and ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid showed competitive type of inhibition.

Conclusion: It is the second manganese peroxidase reported from a plant source. The enzymatic properties are similar to manganese peroxidase from Musa paradisiaca stem juice and other reported fungal manganese peroxidases.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/149356/article

 

MOST ACCESSED ARTICLE – Adverse Events of Proton Pump Inhibitors – Current Drug Metabolism

Journal: Current Drug Metabolism

Author(s): Andrea Corsonello*, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Silvia Bustacchini, Sabrina Garasto, Annalisa Cozza,Roberto Schepisi, Federica Lenci, Filippo Luciani, Marcello Giuseppe Maggio, Andrea Ticinesi, Valeria Butto,Sara Tagliaferri, Francesco Corica.

Graphical Abstract:

 

Abstract:

Objective: We aimed at summarizing current evidence about mechanisms for potentially harmful effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs).

Methods: A Pubmed search was performed, and 207 studies concerning the relationship between use of PPIs and cardiovascular diseases, kidney impairment, nutritional disorders, fractures, infections, functional decline, and mortality were selected and reviewed.

Results: PPIs may cause potentially harmful effects by several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, hypomagnesemia, drug interactions, reduced absorption of selected nutrients, increased gastric microbiota and small intestine bacterial overgrowth, reduced immune response, tubular-interstitial inflammation, increased bone turnover, accumulation of amyloid in the brain. Clinical and epidemiologic evidence is not consistent in regard to some negative outcomes during PPI treatment. Data from randomized clinical trials seem to deny most of them, but they are usually designed to investigate efficacy of drugs in ideal conditions and are not powered enough to detect adverse events. Besides being at special risk of experiencing negative outcomes during long-term treatment with PPIs, older and complex patients treated with polypharmacy regimens are persistently excluded from randomized clinical trials. Thus, large observational studies involving real-world patients should be considered as an important informative source about potential risks related to PPIs.

Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that use of PPIs may be associated with negative outcomes by eliciting several different pathophysiologic mechanisms. While short-term PPIs could be considered effective and safe in adult patients with acid-related disorders, their long-term and often inappropriate use in patients carrying vulnerability to adverse events and/or high risk of drug-interactions should be avoided.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/158149/article

 

EDITOR’S CHOICE – Crystalline Ethylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide Triblock Copolymer Solid Dispersion Enhance Solubility, Stability and Promoting Time- Controllable Release of Curcumin

JOURNAL: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation

AUTHOR(S): Thais F.R. Alves, Franciely C.C. das Neves Lopes, Marcia A. Rebelo, Juliana F. Souza, Katiusca da Silva Pontes, Carolina Santos, Patricia Severino, Jose M.O. Junior, Daniel Komatsu, Marco V. Chaud

Graphical Abstract:

 

Abstract:

Aims and Background: The design and development of an effective medicine are, however, often faced with a number of challenges. One of them is the close relationship of drug’s bioavailability with solubility, dissolution rate and permeability. The use of curcumin’s (CUR) therapeutic potential is limited by its poor water solubility and low chemical stability. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of polymer and solid dispersion (SD) preparation techniques to enhance the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate and stability of the CUR. The recent patents on curcumin SD were reported as (i) curcumin with polyvinylpyrrolidone (CN20071 32500 20071214, WO2006022012 and CN20151414227 20150715), (ii) curcumin-zinc/polyvinylpyrrolidone (CN20151414227 20150715), (iii) curcumin-poloxamer 188 (CN2008171177 20080605), (iv) curcumin SD prepared by melting method (CN20161626746-20160801).

Materials and Methods: SD obtained by co-preciptation or microwave fusion and the physical mixture of CUR with Poloxamer-407 (P-407), Hydroxypropylmetylcellulose-K4M (HPMC K4M) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 (PVP-K30) were prepared at the ratios of 1:2; 1:1 and 2:1. The samples were evaluated by solubility, stability, dissolution rate and characterized by SEM, PXRD, DSC and FTIR.

Results: The solubility, stability (pH 7.0) and dissolution rate were significantly greater for SD (CUR:P-407 1:2). The PXRD,SEM and DSC indicated a change in the crystalline state of CUR. The enhancement of solubility was dependent on a combination of factors including the weight ratio, preparation techniques and carrier properties. The drug release data fitted well with the Weibull equation, indicating that the drug release was controlled by diffusion, polymer relaxation and erosion occurring simultaneously.

Conclusion: Thus, these SDs, specifically CUR:P-407 1:2 w/w, can overcome the barriers of poor bioavailability to reap many beneficial properties.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/159171/article

 

 

New Issue :: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 18, Issue 4

Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry is a forum for the review of areas of keen and topical interest to medicinal chemists and others in the allied disciplines. Each issue is solely devoted to a specific topic, containing six to nine reviews, which provide the reader a comprehensive survey of that area. A Guest Editor who is an expert in the topic under review, will assemble each issue. The scope of Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry will cover all areas of medicinal chemistry, including current developments in rational drug design, synthetic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, high-throughput screening, combinatorial chemistry, compound diversity measurements, drug absorption, drug distribution, metabolism, new and emerging drug targets, natural products, pharmacogenomics, and structure-activity relationships. Medicinal chemistry is a rapidly maturing discipline. The study of how structure and function are related is absolutely essential to understanding the molecular basis of life. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry aims to contribute to the growth of scientific knowledge and insight, and facilitate the discovery and development of new therapeutic agents to treat debilitating human disorders. The journal is essential for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important advances.

Articles from the journal Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry Volume 18, Issue 4:

For details on the articles, please visit this link :: https://bit.ly/2IYHOpN

 

THOUGHT OF THE DAY

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OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE – Anti-inflammatory Action of Green Tea

Journal: Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Author(s): Tomokazu Ohishi, Shingo Goto, Pervin Monira, Mamoru Isemura, Yoriyuki Nakamura

Graphical Abstract:

 

Abstract:

Background: Green tea has been shown to have beneficial effects against a variety of diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Through cellular, animal, and human experiments, green tea and its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our previous findings have indicated that green tea and EGCG suppress the gene and/or protein expression of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related enzymes.

Methods: Using bibliographic databases, particularly PubMed (provided by the http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States), we examined the potential usefulness of green tea/EGCG for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases in human clinical and epidemiological studies. We also reviewed results from cellular and animal experiments and proposed action mechanisms.

Results: Most of the results from the human studies indicated the beneficial effects of green tea and tea catechins against inflammatory diseases. The cellular and animal studies also provided evidence for the favorable effects of green tea/EGCG. These results are compatible with our previous findings and can be largely explained by a mechanism wherein green tea/EGCG acts as an antioxidant to scavenge reactive oxygen species, leading to attenuation of nuclear factor-κB activity.
Conclusion: Since green tea and EGCG have multiple targets and act in a pleiotropic manner, we may consider their usage to improve the quality of life in patients with inflammatory disease. Green tea and EGCG have beneficial health effects and no severe adverse effects; however, care should be taken to avoid overdosage, which may induce deleterious effects including hepatic injury.

 

EDITOR’S CHOICE – Deciphering the Role of microRNAs in Regulation of Immune Surveillance, Self-Tolerance and Allograft Transplant Outcome

Journal: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Author(s): Cherry S. Leung, Song Lu, Jiatao Li, William KK Wu, Kathy O. Lui

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that can modulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level, and they participate in almost all important biological processes. Immune system is elaborately regulated to maintain the equilibrium between immunity and tolerance. Recent studies have revealed significant functions of microRNAs in the maintenance of immune homeostasis using both cell and transgenic mouse models. In collaboration with various transcriptional factors and cytokines, microRNAs constitute an effective and flexible regulatory network governing the development and activation of immune cells; as well as maintenance of immune tolerance. In this review, microRNAs involved in T cell development, proliferation, and lineage differentiation will be summarized. Based on current knowledge, the function of microRNAs in establishing and maintaining immune tolerance will also be discussed in relation to determining the outcome of allograft transplantation.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/138941/article

 

WISHING A VERY HAPPY BIRTHDAY DR. LING TAU CHUAN!

Dr. Ling Tau Chuan

DR. LING TAU CHUAN

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: CURRENT BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA
KUALA LUMPUR
MALAYSIA