Samer El-Kaissi, Jack R. Wall
Disorders of the thyroid and parathyroid glands are common and neck ultrasonography has stood the test of time and established itself as the primary imaging modality of not only the thyroid gland but also of the parathyroid glands and cervical lymph nodes. When clinically indicated, neck ultrasonography is invaluable and can be seen as an extension of the physical examination. It is performed in the office without any patient preparation and allows the physician to carry-out ultrasound-guided biopsies of anterior and lateral neck structures. Physicians who are not personally performing neck ultrasonography and ultrasound guided-procedures still need to be quite familiar with the ultrasound features of the normal and abnormal thyroid gland, parathyroid glands and cervical lymph nodes. This is particularly important as there is a wide variation in the standards of neck ultrasonography reporting.
The authors of this book are Endocrinologists with an interest in thyroid and parathyroid disorders, who have been performing neck ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided procedures of the neck for more than 15 years. When we set out to write this book, our aim was to provide a basic introduction to neck ultrasonography and to allow the reader to quickly search for relevant information about the ultrasound feature or condition in question. To aid with this task, we tried to include as many ultrasound images as possible and to limit the amount of text as we believe in the saying “a picture is worth a thousand words”. This book would be a useful tool for endocrinologists, endocrine surgeons, cytopathologists, ultrasonographers and other health care workers with an interest in thyroid and parathyroid disorders. Read out the full version here.
Drug Delivery Letters published by Bentham Science Publishers, has been accepted for inclusion in Scopus. Scopus is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature including scientific journals, books and conference proceedings.
Drug Delivery Letters publishes letters, original research papers, mini and full length reviews and guest edited issues in all important aspects of drug delivery, gene delivery, and drug targeting.The journals’ scope covers all the basic and applied research in drug delivery and targeting at molecular and cellular levels and novel delivery systems. The journal also focuses on all innovative aspects of all pharmaceutical dosage forms and the most advanced research on controlled release, bioavailability and drug absorption, nanomedicines and gene delivery, etc. The manuscript submission process is fully electronic to ensure rapid publication of research results.
The 9th Emirates Otorhinolaryngology Audiology and Communication Disorders Congress, are joining forces with the German ENT Society to present to you an international congress which would cover all aspects of Otorhinolaryngology, Audiology & Communication Disorders. The Congress will be held in Dubai, UAE from 16-18 January 2019, at the Intercontinental Hotel, Dubai Festival City.
The 2018 Emirates Rhinology & Otology Congress was attended by 2000 delegates’ from around the globe. The astounding success of the previous congress motivated us to strive for ager and better congress this year and thus, we have gathered a world-class panel of expert speakers to address you from both, international and regional communities. This congress will provide you with a platform to share experiences and discuss breakthroughs in various specialist fields and a necessary criterion to successfully assess & expand your own practices. We have included keynote lectures, round table discussions, instructional courses, video sessions and abstract sessions covering a wide array of topics for you to be introduced to the latest technologies and techniques in the field of ENT.
The 2019 congress will also have several live surgical pre-congress workshops on state of the art anatomical specimens. From the wide array of presentations submitted to us by the research committee, the scientific committee will choose the best ones to be presented during the congress and the best presentations will be recognized and awarded.
On January 30-31, 2019, MECC Maastricht, The Netherlands, will host a two-day event focused on 3D Medical Printing. This edition will cover a broad range of topics during the conferences and expo.
3D printing is becoming increasingly implemented in the operating room, with surgeons turning to the technology to create tailor-made implants for their patients. Several uses of the technology are already generating revenue as viable medical businesses, like dental applications, prosthetics and hearing devices. The conference programme will offer the following topics:
The audience is a mix of academics, medical professionals, business, technology, regulation and creative, so the content will address professionals in this field from different perspectives.
Protein & Peptide Letters publishes letters, original research papers, mini-reviews and guest edited issues in all important aspects of protein and peptide research, including structural studies, advances in recombinant expression, function, synthesis, enzymology, immunology, molecular modeling, and drug design. Manuscripts must have a significant element of novelty, timeliness and urgency that merit rapid publication. Reports of crystallization and preliminary structure determination of biologically important proteins are considered only if they include significant new approaches or deal with proteins of immediate importance, and preliminary structure determinations of biologically important proteins. Purely theoretical/review papers should provide new insight into the principles of protein/peptide structure and function. Manuscripts describing computational work should include some experimental data to provide confirmation of the results of calculations.
Protein & Peptide Letters focuses on:
Author(s): Jinchang Pan, Xiaodan Meng, Nan Jiang, Xiaofeng Jin, Chengwei Zhou, Dazhi Xu, Zhaohui Gong*.
Background: Considerable evidence has indicated that most noncoding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts act directly as functional RNAs rather than as encoded peptides. However, a recent study of ribosome occupancy reported that many large intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs) are bound by ribosomes, raising the possibility that they are translated into proteins. These lincRNAs contain either Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites (IRES) or short Open Reading Frames (sORFs), and other translation elements, which can be translated into peptides with physiological functions.
Conclusion: This review discusses three major types of ncRNA-encoded peptides (ncPEPs). First, microRNA(miRNA)-encoded peptides (miPEPs) are translated from their primary transcripts of miRNA genes and can promote the development of plant roots. Second, a long ncRNA(lncRNA) containing sORF encodes a 90 residues long regulatory peptide. Upon the amino acid response, the lncRNA-encoded peptide reduces the activity of mammalian Target Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and promotes muscle regeneration. Third, a circular RNA (circRNA) of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger gene 1 (NCX1) exon 2 transcript encodes a truncated NCX1 protein exhibiting the Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity. It is also of worth noting that the majority of ncRNAs is not translated. This review summarizes the current understanding of the translatability of ncRNAs and the functions of ncPEPs in cellular processes, which may provide novel insights into the roles of ncPEPs.
Background: The research field of protein-protein interactions is interdisciplinary and specialized field that spans all aspects of biology, physics and chemistry. Therefore, in order to discuss the protein-protein interaction in detail and rigorously, it is desirable to integrate knowledge and methods of many related fields including boundary areas such as biochemistry, biophysics and physical chemistry in addition to biology, physics and chemistry.
Objective: The purpose of this review is to overview current methods to confirm protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, I discuss future prospects of methodology based on current status.
Results: It is often necessary to integrate, combine and validate multiple results from various methods to understand protein-protein interactions in detail.
Conclusion: It might be desirable for the addition of tags, labeling, and immobilization to solid phases to be unnecessary, and to obtain information on affinity, kinetics, and structure via the analytical method for protein-protein interactions. Therefore, I argue that novel methods based on principles that have already been sufficiently studied in physics or chemistry, but insufficiently applied to the life sciences, should be established to further develop the study of protein-protein interactions.
This article by Prof. Zsuzsanna Suba is published in Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery, Volume 12, Issue 2, 2017
Antiestrogen treatment was introduced into breast cancer therapy based on the presumed carcinogenic capacity of endogenous estrogen hormones. In antiestrogen resistant breast cancers, increased expression and activity of estrogen receptors (ERs) is regarded as a survival technique, presuming that increased estrogen signaling is an absolutely proliferative stimulus. Unexpectedly, among certain circumstances, estrogen treatment is capable of inducing apoptotic death in tumors, even in antiestrogen resistant ones justifying the strong apoptotic capacity of estrogen. Analysis of the results of studies on both estrogen and antiestrogen treated tumors may clarify the associations among artificial ER blockade, compensatory restoration of ER signaling and the clinical behavior of cancers.
Inherited BRCA1/2 mutations may be regarded as pathologic models of defective estrogen signaling. In BRCA mutation carriers, the liganded activation of ERs is weak, while an increase in unliganded ER activation results in a more or less compensatory upregulation of ER signaling. Mutation carriers exhibit failure in their ovarian functions, while their risk for cancer is strongly increased (for breast cancer in particular). In cases carrying BRCA mutation, an increase in estrogen levels via either endogenous estrogen synthesis in pregnancy or exogenous estrogen administration via contraceptive use may reduce the risk of cancer development.
Estrogen activated ERs are the principal initiators and organizers of DNA stabilization. ERs work in an upregulative circuit with CYP19 aromatase enzyme and genome safeguarding proteins including BRCAs. The upregulative circuit ensures a strong DNA protection during the proliferation of healthy cells, whilst inducing apoptotic death in spontaneously initiated malignant cells in a Janus faced manner. By contrast, malignant cell proliferation exhibits a downregulative circuit between the low and/or defective expressions of ER and BRCA proteins. The malfunction of ER signaling is coupled with a damaged control of DNA replication resulting in an unrestrained proliferation of poorly differentiated tumor cells. In conclusion, in patients with cancer, estradiol induced upregulation of ER signaling may be an excellent means for the restoration of genome stabilizer machinery and for inducing apoptotic death in cancer cells.
Estrogen treatment upregulates the remnants of genome stabilizer machinery in breast cancer cell lines so as to induce an apoptotic death. Estrogen administration increases the expression and transcriptional activity of ERs in tumor cells, via both liganded and unliganded pathways. In patients, of all examined tumor markers, an increased expression of ERs in their breast cancer defines the prolonged survival. Moreover, the activation of ER-alpha at Ser 167 in tumors is indicative of longer disease free and overall survival in breast cancer patients.
Estrogen treatment induces ESR1 gene amplification resulting in higher expression levels of ERs in breast cancers. Patients exhibiting ESR1 gene amplification in their tumors, experience longer disease free survival than those without it.
Estradiol treatment mediates an increased expression of long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) including HOTAIR in breast cancer cells. HOTAIR is capable of epigenetic gene modifications resulting in necessary activating mutations in the ESR1 gene. Patients with increased HOTAIR expression in their tumors were found to have lower risks for relapse and mortality than those showing low HOTAIR expression.
Estradiol treatment increases aromatase expression and activity in breast cancer cells in a dose dependent manner. Estradiol activated ERs strongly upregulate the estrogen synthesis of aromatase enzyme so as to increase estrogen signaling and to induce consequential DNA restoration and apoptotic death. Among breast cancer cases, a direct correlation was experienced between the aromatase activity of removed tumors and the patient’s survival time after surgery. Moreover, among young women with breast cancer, the absence of CYP19 aromatase activity in their surgically removed tumors carried a high risk for local cancer recurrence.
Estrogen treatment induces an upregulated expression of DNA safeguarding BRCA1 protein in breast cancer cell lines. In turn, it was found that the BRCA1 protein promotes ESR1 gene activation and transcriptionally upregulates ER-alpha expression in tumor cells. These correlations justify that ER-alpha and BRCA1 protein work in close partnership in the DNA stabilization process which provides apoptotic stimuli for breast cancer cells.
In conclusion, treatment with estrogen may strongly upregulate both estrogen signaling and DNA safeguarding in breast cancers promoting tumor responses. In antiestrogen responsive tumors, the blockade of liganded ER activation via either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor, provokes compensatory overexpression and hyperactivity of both ERs and aromatase enzyme via unliganded activations of partially blocked ERs. This compensatory activation of estrogen signaling may restore DNA stability promoting tumor responses. By contrast, in antiestrogen resistant tumors, a long term, exhaustive tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor treatment induces a compensatory extreme upregulation of ER signaling; however, it may be insufficient to break through the near complete, artificially induced ER blockade. Antiestrogen resistant tumors exhibit a rapid growth in spite of the continuous administration of antiestrogens.
Cardiology Congress 2019 Conference will be an investigation of new research Innovation in the field of Cardiology and spread the most recent advancements in heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. Argument on new technology enhancement in the field of Cardiovascular Disease and current practices in cardiovascular therapy, Cardiac progenitor cells, Hypertension for the primary care clinician, Stent procedure, Balloon Valvuloplasty, Coronary thrombectomy, Noninvasive cardiac imaging, Heart failure, Congestive heart failure, Sports Cardiology and more. Differentiating heart disease and other cardiac conditions constitute a team of healthcare professionals, of which the Cardiology technologist is a key player.
This conference will provide a comprehensive update on all medical, surgical, interventional, and electrophysiological topics in cardiology and also provides the opportunity for clinicians, scientists, doctors and researchers from all over the world to gather and learn the latest advances in the field of cardiology and healthcare and to exchange scientific ideas and experiences in a distinctive environment.