Bentham Science Media Partnership | 26th Biennial International Congress on Thrombosis

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In 2019, EMLTD celebrates 50 years of scientific activities in the field of Thrombosis in the Mediterranean countries and in Europe. Therefore, the 26th ICT was the Anniversary Congress of EMLTD.

The ICT 2019 welcomed both clinicians and basic researchers for high-level interdisciplinary exchange. The congress brought the best and most novel advances in Thrombosis and related scientific topics to attending delegates. In this regard we created a unique programme which covered the whole spectrum of basic, translational and clinical aspects of thrombosis, platelets, coagulation, fibrinolysis, haemostasis and vascular biology with care and appreciation for attendees’ scientific and personal enjoyment. The programme includesd outstanding Keynote lectures, State-of-the-art Plenary sessions, Meet the Experts sessions, Advanced Clinical Workshops, Sponsored Educational and Satellite symposia, Short Oral Presentations, Science at a Glance and Poster sessions, based on selected abstracts submitted by young scientists. The ICT 2019  created an excellent opportunity for all participants to gain new friends, new ideas, inspiration to advance their research, and opportunities to establish new collaborations on Thrombosis and related diseases. The ICT 2019 will support Young Investigators by providing awards to the best oral and poster presentations.

The Congress was held in “Megaron, The Athens International Conference Center”. This venue is in the center of the city of Athens, very close to the metro station where all attendees of ICT 2019 got the opportunity to enjoy an excellent scientific meeting in the warm, hospitable and enchanting city of Athens. All the above fascinating features made the Anniversary 26th ICT 2019 a wonderful and unforgettable event.  To know  more about the conference, please visit:




Science Alert | There’s Bacteria Living on Your Eyeball, And It Could Be More Important Than We Think




You may be familiar with the idea that your gut and skin are home to a collection of microbes – fungi, bacteria and viruses – that are vital for keeping you healthy. But did you know that your eyes also host a unique menagerie of microbes?

Together, they’re called the eye microbiome. When these microbes are out of balance – too many or too few of certain types – eye diseases may emerge.

With a recent study showing bacteria live on the surface of the eye and stimulate protective immunity, scientists are beginning to discover the microbial factors that can be exploited to create innovative therapies for a range of eye disorders like Dry Eye DiseaseSjogren’s Syndrome and corneal scarring.

One day it may be possible to engineer bacteria to treat eye diseases in humans.

I’m an immunologist studying how the eye prevents infection. I became interested in this field because humans get only two eyes, and understanding how bacteria affect immunity may be the key to avoiding up to 1 million visits to the doctor for eye infections and save US$174 million per year in the U.S. alone.

Eye microbiome

When discussing the microbiome, most scientists usually think of the gut, and deservedly so; researchers think one colon can harbor more than 10 trillion bacteria. That being said, more attention is now being focused on the impact microbiomes have at other sites, including the skin, and areas with very few bacteria, like the lungsvagina and eyes.

For the last decade, the role of the microbiome in ocular health was controversial. Scientists believed that healthy eyes lacked an organized microbiome. Studies showed that bacteria from the air, hands or eyelid margins could be present on the eye; however, many believed these microbes were simply killed or washed away by the continual flow of tears.

Only recently have scientists concluded that the eye does, indeed, harbor a “core” microbiome that appears dependent on age, geographic region, ethnicity, contact lens wear and state of disease.

The “core” is limited to four genera of bacteria StaphylococciDiphtheroidsPropionibacteria and StreptococciIn addition to these bacteria, torque teno virus, implicated in some intraocular diseases, also counts as a member of the core microbiome as it is present on the surface of the eye of 65% of healthy individuals.

This suggests that doctors should think more deeply about the risks and benefits to the microbiome when prescribing antibiotics. The antibiotics may kill bacteria that are providing a benefit to the eye.

In a recent study spanning more than a decade and including more than over 340,000 patients in the U.S., the authors found that antibiotics were used to treat 60 percent of acute conjunctivitis (pink eye) cases.

But viral infections are the most likely causes of pink eye, and not treatable with antibiotics. More striking, even cases caused by bacteria often resolve in 7-10 days without intervention. It is well known that excessive or inappropriate antibiotic use can disrupt the microbiome, leading to infectionautoimmunity and even cancer.

Discovering an eye-colonizing microbe

Within the past decade, studies assessing the eye microbiome and disease have boomed. They’ve generated an immense amount of data, but most of it is correlative.

This means that certain bacteria have been linked to certain diseases, like Sjogren’s Syndrome or bacterial keratitis. However, whether these bacteria are causing these diseases is still unknown.

During my time at the National Eye Institute, I used mice to identify whether bacteria at the surface of the eye could stimulate an immune response to protect the eye from blinding pathogens like the bacterium Pseudomonas aeuruginosa.

In 2016, ocular immunologist Rachel Caspi at the National Eye Institute and I hypothesized that protective bacteria were living near or on the eye. Indeed, we found a resident bacterium, Corynebacterium mastitidis (C. mast), that stimulates immune cells to produce and release antimicrobial factors that kill harmful microbes into the tears.

Through a series of experiments, the Caspi lab was able to show for the first time a causal relationship between C. mast and a protective immune response. Whenever C. mast was present on the eye surface, mice were more resistant to two species of bacteria known to cause blindness: Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeuruginosa.

Now, in my lab, we would like to exploit this relationship between C. mast and ocular immunity to develop novel therapies to prevent infection and possibly target more widespread diseases like Dry Eye Disease.

Engineering microbes to improve eye health

The first step toward developing such therapies is figuring out how bacteria colonize the eye. For this, my lab is collaborating with the Campbell Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh, which houses one of the most extensive collections of human ocular bacteria in the country.

With our unique experimental setup with mice and advanced genetic analyses, we can use this microbial library to begin to identify specific factors required for the microbes to colonize the surface of the eye.

Then, with ophthalmologists and optometrists in the UPMC Eye Center, we are beginning to analyze the immune signatures within the eyes of healthy and diseased patients.

Here, our hope is to use this technology as a new diagnostic tool to target the microbes causing disease rather than immediately treating infections with broad spectrum antibiotics that kill the good microbes too.

Finally, one of our loftier goals is to genetically engineer eye-colonizing bacteria to act as long-term delivery vehicles to the surface of the eye. In the gut, genetically modified bacteria have been shown to alleviate diseases like colitis.

We hope that this new “prob-eye-otic” therapy would act to secrete immune regulating factors, which would limit symptoms associated with conditions like Dry Eye Disease, which affects around 4 million people in the U.S. per year.

In this developing field, there is still much to learn before physicians can begin manipulating the ocular microbiome to fight disease. But one day perhaps rather than just squirting eye drops into your dry eyes, you’ll squirt in a solution with some bacteria that will colonize your eye and secrete the lubricants and other factors your body is missing. Stay tuned. To read out more, please visit:

Tony St. Leger, Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology and Immunology, University of Pittsburgh.

This article is republished by The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Press Release | The circadian-hypoxia link in cardioprotection


This article by Dr. Tobias Eckle and Dr. Colleen Marie Bartman is published in Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2019. For further details, please visit:




Circadian rhythms are 24 hour cycles that are guided by exposure to alternating periods of day and night. These cycles affect biological activities in a variety of living organisms which are attuned to the circadian clock. A disturbance in circadian patterns is known to affect many biomolecular processes linked with metabolism and other physiological functions. Dr. Tobias Eckle and his team at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have studied circadian rhythms in detail. Eckle’s recent research has specifically been directed towards identifying cellular adaptive mechanisms during hypoxic conditions such as myocardial ischemia – one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The team has published their review in Current Pharmaceutical Design.

Adenosine signaling has been implicated in cardiac adaptation to limited oxygen availability. In a wide search for adenosine receptor elicited cardio-adaptive responses, Eckle’s group identified the circadian rhythm protein period 2 (PER2) as an adenosine signaling target. The researchers found that PER2 KO mice had larger infarct sizes and a limited ability to use carbohydrates for oxygen-efficient glycolysis compared to wild-type mice. This impairment was caused by a failure to stabilize the oxygen sensor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF1A). Moreover, stabilization of PER2 in the heart by exposing mice to intense light resulted in the transcriptional induction of HIF1A regulated glycolytic enzymes and PER2-dependent cardio-protection from ischemia. Ongoing studies are attempting to elucidate the role of the light regulated circadian rhythm protein PER2 as an oxygen and metabolic sensor during conditions of limited oxygen availability.

In their comprehensive review article, Eckle et al. discuss an evolutionary link between light and oxygen sensing pathways in depth and provide an insight into molecular and cellular adaptation for resilience to adverse changes in the environment:

The appearance of sunlight and oxygen on earth were undoubtedly the most dramatic environmental changes during evolution. As a result, almost all organisms on this planet are equipped with light and oxygen sensing pathways. Notably, light sensing and oxygen sensing pathways in mammals are linked on a cellular level: Hypoxia inducible factor 1? (HIF1A), an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor enabling cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability, belongs to the same protein family as the light-regulated circadian core protein Period 2 (PER2). Both belong to the PAS domain superfamily of signal sensors for oxygen, light, or metabolism. As such, Hif1? messenger RNA levels cycle in a circadian manner in mouse cardiac tissue and rhythmic oxygen levels reset the circadian clock through HIF1A. “This evolutionary conserved relationship between light (circadian) and oxygen sensing pathways suggests a role for light elicited circadian rhythm proteins in disease states of low oxygen availability, such as myocardial ischemia,” states Eckle. He concludes that “Insights gained from an advanced understanding of this evolutionarily conserved relationship between light and oxygen sensing pathways, will ultimately provide new therapeutic opportunities to treat such diseases.” Read full press release to find out more at:


New Issue | Recent Innovations in Chemical Engineering; Volume 12, Issue 1


Recent Innovations in Chemical Engineering publishes full-length/mini reviews, research articles and guest edited thematic issues on recent innovations in chemical engineering.

Recent innovations may also include important recent patents, new technology, methodology, techniques and applications in all aspects of chemical engineering.

The journal is essential reading for all researchers involved in chemical engineering science.




Articles from the journal: Recent Innovations in Chemical Engineering; Volume 12, Issue 1

For details on the articles, please visit this link:

Wishing you a very Happy Birthday | Dr. Giovanni Gherardi


Dr. Giovanni Gherardi.jpg


Dr. Giovanni Gherardi

Editor in Chief: Anti-Infective Agents

University Bio-Medico

Bentham Science Media Partnership | Digital Pathology & AI USA

5th Digital Pathology & AI Congress: USA



35+ presentations given at the 2019 meeting. Over two days discovered more about the latest advances and applications of digital pathology. Learnt how artificial intelligence and machine learning is being applied to primary diagnosis and clinical research and how the image-based information environment is transforming the laboratory.


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Bentham Science Free Trial in Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences| Free Trial ends on 17th Sept, 2019




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Infographics | DNA Explained


DNA Explained

shared by stephanieivania in Science
BBC Knowledge and Learning teamed up with Territory Studio to produce this great intro video to DNA


BBC Knowledge


Territory Studio


Aims and Scope | Current Bioinformatics

Current Bioinformatics aims to publish all the latest and outstanding developments in bioinformatics. Each issue contains a series of timely, in-depth/mini-reviews, research papers and guest edited thematic issues written by leaders in the field, covering a wide range of the integration of biology with computer and information science.

The journal focuses on advances in computational molecular/structural biology, encompassing areas such as computing in biomedicine and genomics, computational proteomics and systems biology, and metabolic pathway engineering. Developments in these fields have direct implications on key issues related to health care, medicine, genetic disorders, development of agricultural products, renewable energy, environmental protection, etc.

Current Bioinformatics is an essential journal for all academic and industrial researchers who want expert knowledge on all major advances in bioinformatics. To know more about the journal, please visit:



Open Access Articles | Improving Self-interacting Proteins Prediction Accuracy Using Protein Evolutionary Information and Weighed-Extreme Learning Machine

Journal Name: Current Bioinformatics

Author(s): Ji-Yong An*, Yong Zhou, Lei Zhang, Qiang Niu, Da-Fu Wang.


big-004 (1).jpg

Background: Self Interacting Proteins (SIPs) play an essential role in various aspects of the structural and functional organization of the cell.

Objective: In the study, we presented a novelty sequence-based computational approach for predicting Self-interacting proteins using Weighed-Extreme Learning Machine (WELM) model combined with an Autocorrelation (AC) descriptor protein feature representation.

Method: The major advantage of the proposed method mainly lies in adopting an effective feature extraction method to represent candidate self-interacting proteins by using the evolutionary information embedded in PSI-BLAST-constructed Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM); and then employing a reliable and effective WELM classifier to perform classify.

Result: In order to evaluate the performance, the proposed approach is applied to yeast and human SIP datasets. The experimental results show that our method obtained 93.43% and 98.15% prediction accuracies on yeast and human dataset, respectively. Extensive experiments are carried out to compare our approach with the SVM classifier and existing sequence-based method on yeast and human dataset. Experimental results show that the performance of our method is better than several other state-of-theart methods.

Conclusion: It is demonstrated that the proposed method is suitable for SIPs detection and can execute incredibly well for identifying Sips. In order to facilitate extensive studies for future proteomics research, we developed a freely available web server called WELM-AC-SIPs in Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) for predicting SIPs. The web server including source code and the datasets are available at To read out more, please visit: