Infographics | Epigenetics: A Primer



There are many ways that epigenetic effects regulate the activation or repression of genes. Here are a few molecular tricks cells use to read off the right genetic program – By Stefan Kubicek



eBook Highlights | A Guide to Evaluate Environmental Contaminants and Natural Products


This eBook is edited by Ashita Sharma, Manish Kumar, Satwinderjeet Kaur and Avinash Kaur Nagpal published on June 10, 2019. Book URL:




Rapid urbanization has pressed the need to assess the environment for the presence of toxic pollutants. Evaluation of Environmental Contaminants and Natural Products: A Human Health Perspective presents a guide to tackle this challenge in two parts which represent two different approaches. The book has two themed parts. The first part of the book summarizes the alarming effects of environmental contaminants. Studies depicting the direct relationship of environmental contaminants with cancer incidence have been referenced. Scientific studies have established an inverse relation between cancer and ingestion of dietary phytoconstituents (phytochemicals) in the form of fruits, vegetables and botanical herbs. Plant products as dietary supplements can suppress contaminant toxicity by regulating the resulting reactive species and also by assisting their bodily excretion through Phase 1 and Phase 2 enzyme metabolism. The second part of the book, shifts focus to phytoconstituents which, if included in diet, can prevent the harmful effects of pollutants. Notes on the anti-mutagenic, anti-genotoxic and anti-carcinogenic potential of many plant products are referenced. The combination of information about contemporary issues of carcinogenic contaminants in the environment coupled with the references to relevant studies in this handbook will enlighten readers studying courses in environmental chemistry, toxicology, botany, and ecology about environmental toxins and help them understand specific dietary measures known to reduce the toxic impact. Researchers in the field of nutrition can also benefit from the information provided. To read out more, please visit:

eBook | Advanced Calculus – Fundamentals of Mathematics


9789811415081-1 (1).jpg




Vector calculus is an essential mathematical tool for physical and natural phenomena analysis; it is a very important subject for students in the Faculties of Science and Engineering. This ebook has been designed to cover two academic semesters for second-year students, as it contains the fundamentals related to Vector Calculus. Here, the reader will find a concise and clear study of this mathematical field, it provides many examples, exercises, and a case study in each chapter. The solutions to the exercises are also included at the end of the ebook. The reader will be able to understand it even without a rigorous mathematical knowledge and will be able to immediately practise the concepts. Its main purpose is to enable students to put into practise what they are learning about the subject

This ebook on Vector Calculus differs from others in the intensive use of affine transformations (or mapping), to modify the integration region of real-valued functions or vector-valued functions.

The first part of the ebook introduces the Vector Algebra over the real coordinate space Rn, but cases and examples are displayed on the plane and space for a better understanding of the concepts. In this part is reviewed the dot and cross product operators, the orthogonal projection, various representations and conversions of the Cartesian and Polar coordinate systems on a plane, and the Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems in a space are reviewed.

The second part is dedicated to real-valued functions, level surfaces, domain, image, graphic representations, properties of limits, continuity, differentiability, gradient, and polynomial approximation as well as the identification of critical points, the use of the Hessian matrix and Bordered Hessian matrix to characterise critical points, the implicit Function Theorem, and the inverse Function Theorem. The final chapter of this part introduces the vector-valued functions, graphic representations, and the rotational and divergence operators.

The third part presents the evaluation of integrals from mapping on a plane and in space. It separately reviews integrals of real-valued functions over bounded and unbounded regions, and curve and surface integrals of vector-valued functions over vector fields. The concept of mapping is carefully introduced, emphasising how adequate mapping simplifies integrals.

The fourth part reviews the Stokes, Gauss, and Green theorems applying mapping. It also includes examples with the complete resolution of both sides of the equalities that these theorems state.

The fifth part is a survey of exterior product and it is based on the books of Hermann Grassmann, Jerrold Marsden, and David Hestenes. We greatly appreciate the recommendation of Prof. Hestenes to include this material.

The last part covers the differential forms and the exterior product focused on line integral, surface integral, the Stokes, Gauss, and Green theorems.

The author hopes the reader interested in studying the fundamentals of calculus on several variables, finds useful the material presented here and that those who start studying this field find this information motivating. The author would like to acknowledge the Faculty of Sciences at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México for support. Read out the full version here.

Press Release | Dose-dependent effects of esmolol-epinephrine combination therapy in myocardial ischemia


The article by Dr. Tobias Eckle et al. is published in Current Pharmaceutical Design, Volume 25, 2019. The complete paper is published in Current Pharmaceutical Design. Please visit the following link to access the paper:




Epinephrine has been included in resuscitation guidelines worldwide since the 1960s. It is believed that epinephrine increases the chance of restoring a person’s heartbeat and improves long-term neurological outcome through increasing coronary and cerebral perfusion pressure. However, recent studies have raised doubts about the benefit of epinephrine regarding neurological outcomes in cardiac arrest. Moreover, epinephrine use in the stabilization of a cardiogenic shock in post-myocardial infarction patients has been found to increase the incidence of refractory shock. In fact, beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation has been suggested to have deleterious effects as stimulation of this pathway increases oxygen consumption and reduces sub-endocardial perfusion. In contrast, esmolol, a cardio-selective β1-blocker, has been shown to provide cardioprotection after myocardial ischemia in animal and human studies. Therefore, esmolol co-administration with epinephrine may help to reduce epinephrine-reperfusion injury but maintain esmolol-cardioprotection and epinephrine mediated increases in chronotropy and inotropy. Indeed, recent studies in animals have uncovered beneficial effects of epinephrine and esmolol co-administration in a cardiac arrest model. Based on these findings, Dr. Tobias Eckle and his team at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, University of Colorado have investigated esmolol-epinephrine combination therapy in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury.

Comparing different esmolol doses in combination with epinephrine in a mouse model of myocardial infarction, Eckle’s team demonstrated that at a specific esmolol-epinephrine ratio (15:1), esmolol-cardioprotection and epinephrine β1 mediated hemodynamic activity can both simultaneously exist during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. “These findings might have implications for current clinical practice in the treatment of patients with cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest”, says Eckle. “In fact, a cardiogenic shock after myocardial ischemia disallows the use of esmolol due to hemodynamic instability.” Interestingly, a definite recommendation for a specific catecholamine regimen in cardiogenic shock is lacking.

Combination therapy of epinephrine with esmolol seems less intuitive in cardiogenic shock after myocardial ischemia according to the research; higher esmolol doses could compromise epinephrine mediated increases of cardiac output via β1 adrenergic receptor inotropic and chronotropic effects, or higher epinephrine doses could compromise esmolol mediated cardioprotection via β1 adrenergic receptor blockade. Surprisingly, by increasing the esmolol dose, the study team was able to restore esmolol-cardioprotection while heart rate and some blood pressures in the early reperfusion phase were significantly increased compared to an esmolol treatment alone. “This finding is novel and highlights that esmolol cardioprotection is not fully understood,” says Eckle. Having increased heart rates, which is β1 mediated, and at the same time seeing cardioprotection via esmolol β1 blockade, indicates that only a part or short-term blockade of β1 receptors is necessary for the salutary effects of esmolol in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury.

While some clinicians occasionally use esmolol in patients on epinephrine infusion due to cardiogenic shock going off cardiac bypass to treat epinephrine-induced arrhythmias, no study to date has evaluated potential cardioprotective effects of esmolol-epinephrine co-administration during cardiac bypass surgery or a cardiogenic shock. As this is the first animal study on epinephrine-esmolol co-administration during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury, further studies in larger animals using multiple dosing protocols are suggested. Read full press release to find out more at:

Editors Choice Article | Thermal Performance of Electrochromic Smart Window with Nanocomposite Structure under Different Climates in Iran


Journal Name: Micro and Nanosystems

Author(s): Siamak Hoseinzadeh*.


Graphical Abstract:



Objective: This study investigated the optimization of thermal energy consumption using electrochromic components with a new nanocomposite layer (WO3+Ag) in a larger size (window) for a room with an educational application for five cities with different climatic conditions in Iran (Yazd, Tehran, Bandar Abbas, Tabriz, and Sari).

Materials and Methods: For this simulation platform, the software was implemented in Energy Plus. This feasibility study was modeled by DesignBuilder software which reported reduced thermal energy consumption across all climates in Iran (hot and dry, warm and semi-humid, warm and wet, moderate and dry, and mild and humid.). Four strategies were considered for better comparison. The first strategy used for common double-glazed windows, while the second to fourth strategies involved the use of the electrochromic window in three different modes; bleached mode (Off), colored mode (On), and switchable mode (controlled below comfort conditions).

Results: The third and fourth strategies indicated a reduction in thermal energy consumption in different climates from 25 to 45% relative to typical windows. The best result of cooling energy consumption was observed in Tehran.

Conclusion: For this climate, the average energy consumption dropped to 34% for the warm months of the year and even 42% for the warmest month of the year (August). To read out more, please visit:

New Issue | Current Catalysis; Volume 8 Issue 1




Current Catalysis is an international peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, full-length reviews/ mini reviews and thematic issues in all core areas of catalysis including theoretical, experimental and applied research. The scope includes heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous catalysis, bio-catalysis, synthesis and properties of new catalysts including synthesis and catalytic function of novel inorganic solids and complexes, studies that relate catalytic function to fundamental chemical processes in metal complexes and at surfaces, novel concepts in surface chemistry, preparation, activation, aging, deactivation, rejuvenation, regeneration of commercially interesting model catalysts, techniques, adsorption


Articles from the journal: Current Catalysis; Volume 8 Issue 1:


For details on the articles, please visit this link:

Become Bentham Ambassador | Current Nutraceuticals




The Journal Current Nutraceuticals is interested in appointing active Bentham Ambassador on the Journal’s Board. If you are working in the related field as of the journal and are interested in becoming an Ambassador, please send us your CV. If, however, the scope of the journal is not directly related to your field, you may, if you wish, also recommend some young researchers as “Associate Bentham Ambassadors” to magnify this effort, and, if possible, send their CV.

Mention in the subject line, the field of interest and send your CV at: and CC:


Benefits available to Bentham Ambassadors

Bentham has developed a comprehensive system of rewards and benefits for Bentham Ambassadors some of which are mentioned below:

1.  As a Bentham Ambassador, you would have the possibility of having your article(s) published as Open Access in any Bentham Science journal of your choice (once you have earned enough points to avail this facility). For a listing of journals please refer to

2.  You would have the possibility to get complementary online access to any three selected Bentham eBooks ( for one calendar year.

3.  The most active Ambassadors can avail discounts on conferences supported by Bentham in respect of registration fee.

4.  You will also receive a souvenir (such as tie, collar logo, or pure leather wallet bearing the Bentham logo).

5.  Your name and affiliation will be mentioned on a dedicated Bentham Ambassadors web page which will help you in your promotional activities as your position will be visible for all to see.

6.  As a Bentham Ambassador you will also be entitled to avail a 25% discount on all Bentham Science content as well as various other Bentham services like Quick Track, Open Access plus, e-prints/reprints, color figures, figures enhancement services, etc.

Become a Reviewer | NEW JOURNALS 2020





Current Chinese Medical Science
Current Chinese Chemistry
Current Chinese Computer Science
Current Chinese Engineering Science
Journal of Photocatalysis
Venoms and Toxins
Current Nutraceuticals 
Current Dentistry

Bentham Science is interested in appointing active Reviewers on the Board for the journal’s listed below. If you are working in the related field as of the journals and are interested in becoming Reviewers, please send us your CV and a list of publications. If, however, the scope of the journal is not directly related to your field, you can recommend suitable colleagues for the same, and, if possible, send their CV along with their list of publications. Mention in the subject line, the field of interest and send your CV at: and CC:

Become an Editorial Board Member (EBM) | NEW JOURNALS IN 2020





Current Chinese Medical Science
Current Chinese Chemistry
Current Chinese Computer Science
Current Chinese Engineering Science
Journal of Photocatalysis
Venoms and Toxins
Current Nutraceuticals 
Current Dentistry

Bentham Science is interested in appointing active Editorial Board Members (EBM) on the Board for the journal’s listed below. If you are working in the related field as of the journals and are interested in becoming an Editorial Board Members, please send us your CV and a list of publications. If, however, the scope of the journal is not directly related to your field, you can recommend suitable colleagues for the same, and, if possible, send their CV along with their list of publications. Mention in the subject line, the field of interest and send your CV at: and CC:



Science Alert | This Photo Is Black And White. Here’s The Science That Makes Your Brain See Colour


A bizarre and brilliantly effective optical illusion going viral on the internet tricks your brain into seeing a colour image… but if you look closer, you’ll notice the photo you’re staring at is only black and white.

“An over-saturated coloured grid overlaid on a grayscale image causes the grayscale cells to be perceived as having colour,” Kolås explains on his Patreon page.

015 colour grid optical illusion 4

So what’s going on here to make our brains actually interpret this black-and-white picture as if it’s full colour image?

According to vision scientist Bart Anderson from the University of Sydney, the effect we’re seeing in this illusion isn’t particularly surprising.

“The colour system is what vision scientists refer to as ‘low pass’, i.e., many of the receptive fields that code colour are quite large,” Anderson told ScienceAlert.

“So the grids get ‘averaged’ with the achromatic background, which then gets attributed to that part of the image.”

In other words, our brain kind of compresses visual information when we look at things, giving us an overall impression of what’s there if we don’t take the time to examine objects closely.

If you’ve seen this illusion doing the rounds, you might notice this isn’t the main image being shared.

Some of the people in that photo hadn’t given permission for it to be shared online, and Kolås has asked for it not to be used, which is why we’ve put up one of his other examples instead.

The illusion isn’t just created by using coloured grids, either. While Kolås finds grids offer the best effect, he’s also played around with other ways of achieving the visual trick, using alternatives like dots and lines:

015 colour grid optical illusion 4

“The raster of dots gives a nice analogy to half-toning as used in print, where colour assimilation aids the optical mixture of colours that already happens before our visual system gets involved,” Kolås explains on his Patreon page.

And here’s an example using lines to create the same effect:

015 colour grid optical illusion 4

And another:

Another one, with horizontal lines instead of a grid.

View image on Twitter
280 people are talking about this

Most impressively of all, the way this illusion works doesn’t seem to require static images.

In the video below, Kolås shows how even full-motion video with the grid overlay is able to trick the brain into thinking its seeing a colour image, all by virtue of the ‘low pass’ way our visual system attributes colour:


To read out more, please visit: