Author(s): Iftikhar Haider Naqvi*Abu TalibSajjad Haider NaqviLubabah YasinNayema Zehra Rizvi

Journal Name: Current Vascular Pharmacology

Graphical Abstract:


Background: The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the huge burden of diabetic foot amputation is a challenge to the health economy of Pakistan and other countries. Identification of various risk factors for amputation, along with its financial burden, is needed to address this problem.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the financial burden and risk factors associated with T2DMrelated foot amputation.

Methods: Retrospective hospital-based study from January 2017 to December 2018. Patients with T2DM with and without amputation were enrolled. The direct medical costs of amputation along with various risk factors, were determined. Risk factors were evaluated by logistic regression analysis.

Results: A total of 1460 patients with T2DM were included; 484 (33%) patients had an amputation. The mean total cost of below knee, fingers and toe amputation was 886.63±23.91, 263.35 ±19.58 and 166.68 ± 8.47 US$, respectively. This difference among groups was significant (p<0.0001). Male gender (odds ratio, OR: 1.29, 1.01-1.63, p=0.037), peripheral artery disease (OR: 1.93, 1.52-2.46, p=0.000), peripheral neuropathy (OR: 1.31, 1.40-1.63, p=0.000), prior diabetic foot ulcer (OR: 2.02, 1.56- 2.56, p=0.000) and raised glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (OR: 3.50, 2.75-4.4, p=0.000) were risk factors for amputation.

Conclusion: The health-related financial impact of amputations is high. Peripheral artery disease, peripheral neuropathy, prior diabetic foot ulcer and raised HbA1c were risk factors for amputation.

To read out more, please visit: