Extensive studies have explored potential therapies against multiple myeloma (MM), whether in hospitals, universities or in private institutional settings. Scientists continue to study the mechanism(s) underlying the disease as a basis for the development of more effective treatment options. There are many therapeutic agents and treatment regimens used for multiple myeloma. Unfortunately, no cure or definitive treatment options exist. The goal of treatment is to maintain the patient in remission for as long as possible. Therapeutic agents used in combination can effectively maintain patients in remission. While these therapies have increased patient survival, a significant number of patients relapse. The off-target toxicity and resistance exhibited by target cells remain a challenge for existing approaches. Ongoing efforts to understand the biology of the disease offer the greatest chance to improve therapeutic options. Nanoparticles (targeted drug delivery systems) offer new hope and directions for therapy. This review summarizes FDA-approved agents for the treatment of MM, highlights the clinical barriers to treatment, including adverse side effects normally associated with the use of conventional agents, and describes how nanotherapeutics have overcome barriers to impede conventional treatments.
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