Article by Disease – “Geriatric Psychopharmacology in Acute Settings”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “GERIATRIC MEDICINE

0009CPSP

Abstract:

Background: Pharmacological management of geriatric patients in acute settings is complex due to the presence of medical comorbidities, risk of drug-drug interactions, and potential patient sensitivity to side effects.

Objectives: This article will review the basic pharmacologic principles of management of older adults in acute settings.

Method: The aforementioned principles will be described and illustrated with two clinical examples. These principles include prioritizing the safety of patients and staff; obtaining a history that is as complete as possible, in order to support the working diagnosis; using the lowest medication dose that controls the symptoms; closely monitoring for side effects and drug-drug interactions; minimizing polypharmacy and discontinuing medications that are no longer necessary; double-checking all orders, so as to avoid medication errors; and involving the patients family and caregivers in treatment planning. Additionally, agents with anticholinergic properties, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics, and opioids should be used cautiously in older individuals, particularly those with dementia. Practical tips, formulations, dosages, and selected adverse effects of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers used with geriatric patients in acute settings are included.

Results: This clinical review will be useful for psychiatrists and other clinicians who treat older adults in acute medical settings.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/138957/article

Article by Disease – “Preparation and Optimization of Moxifloxacin Microspheres for Colon Targeted Delivery Using Quality by Design Approach: In Vitro and In Vivo Study”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “GASTROENTEROLOGY

002

Abstract:

Background: Gut microbiota has a significant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Colonic microflora modulation using an antibiotic might have an emerging role to treat the metabolic disorders. The present study was aimed to optimize the Moxifloxacin loaded chitosan microspheres (MCMs) by emulsion cross linking method for colon targeted delivery to alter the microflora.

Methods: Preliminary optimization of MCMs was carried out using Placket-Burman design (PBD) following by final optimization with Box-Behnken design (BBD). Optimized MCMs were evaluated for yield, particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro/ in vivo antimicrobial activities.

Results: FTIR spectroscopy of MCMs confirms the absence of chemical interactions during the formulation. MCMs were found to be smooth, spherical with particle size around 20μm. An enteric coating of MCMs prevented the drug release in the acidic environment of the stomach and ileum with complete release at the colon. MCMs had followed the korsmeyer – peppas model of drug release, indicating the drug release by non-fickian diffusion pattern. MCMs showed significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against Lactobacillus casei and Escherichia coli. In vivo results of MCMs exhibited prolonged antimicrobial effect of drug in the cecal content of rats. Significant protective activity observed in the ileum and colon histology in rats treated with MCMs compared to the pure drug.

Conclusion: MCMs were formulated by emulsion cross linking method using QBD approach. An enteric coating around the microspheres prevented the premature drug release at upper gastrointestinal tract, while chitosan cross linking has provided the sustain release of the drug in the colonic region over the time.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/142092/article 

Article by Disease – “Higher Expression of NOD1 and NOD2 is Associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) Syndrome But Not Behcet’s Disease (BD)”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “ORPHAN DISEASES”

Abstract:

NOD1 and NOD2 have been found to play a significant regulatory role in autoimmune disease. To analyze the role of NOD1 and NOD2 in the pathogenesis of Vogt- Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome and Behcet’s disease (BD). We analyzed the expression of NOD1 and NOD2 from PBMCs by RT-PCR and Western Blot. PBMCs and DCs were cultured with NOD receptor ligands iE-DAP (NOD1) or MDP (NOD2) and cells and supernatants were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). DCs and CD4+T cells were co-cultured with or without stimulation and cells and supernatants were analyzed by FCM and ELISA. A higher expression of NOD1 and NOD2 was observed in patients with active VKH syndrome as compared with controls. However, no significant differences were found between BD patients and controls. Activation of NOD1 and NOD2 with iE-DAP or MDP markedly increased the level of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β in PBMCs and DCs and induced the expression of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR on DCs. Activation of NOD1 and NOD2 in DCs promoted the differentiation and proliferation of CD4<sup+< sup=””>T cells. In conclusion, activation of NOD1 or NOD2 increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PBMCs and promoted the maturation and activation of human DCs in association with stimulation of Th1 and Th17 cells. Our results suggest that over-expression of NOD1 and NOD2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of VKH syndrome.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/140460/article

Article by Disease – “Numerical Simulations of Tensile Tests of Red Blood Cells: Effects of the Hold Position”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “HAEMATOLOGY”

Abstract:

Tensile tests have been carried out to determine the failure strain of red blood cells. However, difficulties in reproducibly arise due to problems controlling the hold position of the cells during the test, which raises questions about the reliability of experimental data. Here, we investigate the effects of the hold position of the red blood cell on strain field during tensile testing using numerical simulations. Tensile tests were simulated in three hold positions. The results show significant variations in the deformed geometry of the red blood cell during the tensile test, as well as variations in strain distribution. Of the hold patterns examined, with an applied strain of 0.8, the misaligned stretch increased the maximum of the first principal strain by 65–85% in comparison to the aligned stretch. Although it would be ideal to precisely control the hold position and reproducibility, in practice this is not straightforward, and hence the effects of variations in the hold position should be considered when interpreting experimental data.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/138323/article

Article by Disease – “Beta-Blockers and Nitrates: Pharmacotherapy and Indications”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “CARDIOLOGY”

Abstract:

Many clinically important differences exist between beta blockers. B1-selectivity is of clinical interest because at clinically used doses, b1- selective agents block cardiac b-receptors while having minor effects on bronchial and vascular b-receptors. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents significantly decrease the frequency and duration of angina pectoris, instead the prognostic benefit of beta-blockers in stable angina has been extrapolated from studies of post myocardial infarction but has not yet been documented without left ventricular disfunction or previous myocardial infarction. Organic nitrates are among the oldest drugs, but they still remain a widely used adjuvant in the treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease. While their efficacy in relieving angina pectoris symptoms in acute settings and in preventing angina before physical or emotional stress is undisputed, the chronic use of nitrates has been associated with potentially important side effects such as tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. B-blockers are the firstline anti-anginal therapy in stable stable angina patients without contraindications, while nitrates are the secondline anti-anginal therapy. Despite 150 years of clinical practice, they remain fascinating drugs, which in a chronic setting still deserve investigation. This review evaluated pharmacotherapy and indications of Beta-blockers and nitrates in stable angina.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/127075/article

Article by Disease – “Insights into the Zinc-Dependent Deacetylase LpxC: Biochemical Properties and Inhibitor Design”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “DIABETES”

Abstract:

The bacterial enzyme UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC), catalyzing the first committed step of lipid A biosynthesis, represents a promising target in the development of novel antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria. Structure, catalytic reaction mechanism and regulation of the Zn2+-dependent metalloamidase have been intensively investigated. The enzyme is required for growth and viability of Gram-negative bacteria, displays no sequence homology with any mammalian protein, but is highly conserved in Gram-negative bacteria, thus permitting the development of Gram-negative selective antibacterial agents with limited off-target effects. Several smallmolecule LpxC inhibitors have been developed, like the substrate analog TU-514 (12a), the aryloxazoline L-161,240 (13w), the sulfonamide BB-78485 (23a), the N-aroyl-L-threonine derivative CHIR-090 (24a), the sulfone-containing pyridone LpxC-3 (43e), and the uridine-based inhibitor 1-68A (47a), displaying diverse inhibitory and antibacterial activities. Most of these compounds share a Zn2+-binding hydroxamate moiety attached to a structural element addressing the hydrophobic tunnel or the UDP binding site. The butadiynyl derivative ACHN-975 (28) is the first LpxC inhibitor entering clinical trials.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/141238/article

Article by Disease – “The Chemopreventive Peptide Lunasin Inhibits d-Galactose- Induced Experimental Cataract in Rats”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE “OPHTHALMOLOGY”

Abstract:

Oxidative damage to the constituents of the eye lens is a major mechanism in the initiation and development of cataract. Lunasin, a 43-amino acids chemoprevention peptide, has been proved to possess potent anti-oxidative activity other than its established anticancer activities. Herein, we explored whether lunasin has preventative effects on d-galactose-induced experimental cataract in rat. After modeling, SD rats were administrated by instillation, 80 M of lunasin eye drops to each eye thrice daily and consecutively for 30 days. As a result, lunasin treatment effectively inhibited the progression of d-galactose-induced experimental cataract, and protected the lenses of rats from oxidative damage and attenuated the lipid peroxidation through up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and inhibited the activation of polyol pathway by decreasing AR activity. Additionally, in vitro studies proved that lunasin treatment could protect human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) against d-galactose induced cell damage and apoptosis, and up-regulate antioxidant enzymes. This is the first demonstration that lunasin could inhibit d-galactose-induced experimental cataract in rats by protecting against oxidative damage and inhibiting the activation of polyol pathway.

Read more: http://benthamscience.com/journals/protein-and-peptide-letters/volume/23/issue/7/page/619/

Article by Disease – “Synthesis and Characterization of Anthracene Functionalized Novel Fluorescent Amino Acids: Interactions of the Fluorescent Amino Acids with Metal Ions”

Article by Disease “Hemophilia”

13

Abstract:

Anthracene based amino acids are synthesized as a new class of fluorescence sensors for the detection of metal ions. Synthesized amino acids were characterized with 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and LCMS spectroscopy. The electro- and photo-luminescent spectra of the fluorescent amino acids were studied and the interaction of 18b with metal ions was discussed. Among various metal ions screened, the fluorescence of the amino acid was quenched with Fe3+ion more selectively and efficiently.

Read more: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-organic-synthesis/volume/13/issue/4/page/646/ 

Article by Disease – “Role of Galectins in Allergic Disorders”

Article by Disease on “Allergy”

Abstract:

Background: Allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy; with antihistamines, anti-leukotrienes, corticosteroids and bronchodilatorsas well as monoclonal antibodies; and allergen specific immunotherapy stand as confirmed approaches for the management of allergic disorders as asthma, allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergies and anaphylaxis. Galectins are members of animal lectin protein family, with binding specificity for β-galactoside sugars. These highly conserved proteins are known to be expressed in various effector cells of the immune system, exert immuno-regulatory activities, and enroll in tissue inflammation and regulation of immune homeostasis.

Objective: This review aims to explain the galectin family and influence of galectins in the immune mechanisms of allergic disorders.

Results: Galectins have multiple roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Intense research in the field of immunology related with galectins have given rise to several patent applications. Those, increasing in vivo efficacy of galectins for therapeutic applications, utilizing galectins for immune stimulation and prolongation of immune responses, utilization of them as disease markers are pioneers. As immune cells can be targeted by galectins, cells containing these molecules can be used for immune intervention. Regulation of cytokine productions by immune cells as IL-1β and IL-10 as well as dendritic cell functions by galectins may be efficient in limitation of some immune-mediated disorders.

Conclusion: Taken all together, better learning of galectin biology together with detailed revealing of galectin-immune system interactions have great potential for immune interventions targeting allergy-related disorders.

Read more: http://benthamscience.com/journals/recent-patents-on-inflammation-and-allergy-drug-discovery/volume/10/issue/1/page/2/

Article by Disease – “Clinico-Hematological Features and Management Outcome in Neonatal Malaria: A Nine Years Analysis from North India”

Article by Disease on “Pediatrics and Neonatology”

6

Abstract:

Background: Malaria is an important cause of death and illness in children worldwide. Most cases of neonatal malaria are misdiagnosed because of lack of specific symptoms and general lack of awareness. Nothing much is known in literature about the hematological changes during malaria infection and outcome of disease in neonates. Neonatal malaria is an underdiagnosed entity. So this hospital based observational study aims to assess diagnostic features of neonatal malaria.

Methods: From August 2004 to August 2013, information of all slide positive for malaria cases aged 0 to 28 days admitted to our pediatric hospital was collected and analysed.Results: 28 slide positive cases of neonatal malaria were studied, four out of them were congenital malaria. Fever (93%) was the most common symptom followed by pallor (72%) and diarrhoea (50%). We also found respiratory distress in four (14%) cases. Apart from anemia and atypical lymphocytosis, We also found thrombocytopenia and low hematocrit, MCV and RBC count. Two cases with bleeding manifestations expired during course of treatment.Discussion: Malaria in the first few months of life can simulate transplacentally or postnatally acquired infection such as TORCH, syphilis, neonatal hepatitis and septicemia all having an important symptom complex of fever jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and anemia. Although in our cases clinical presentation has been similar to septicemia but culture of blood, CSF and urine were sterile. The dilemma of distinguishing neonatal malaria alone versus neonatal sepsis or both existing does not seem to be easily resolved by the use of clinical features alone. The laboratory diagnosis of parasitemia in neonates require special attention in Giemsa staining as well as the technical skill involved in malaria microscopy because parasite densities are low. So high degree of suspicion is needed to diagnose malaria in newborns presenting with fever and anemia.

Read more: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-pediatric-reviews/volume/12/issue/4/page/286/