Press Release – Antioxidant treatment in acute ischemic stroke may delay the onset of Alzheimer’s dementia

Currently we are facing a dementia epidemic, estimations showing that by 2050 approximately 131 million people will be affected. Every 7 seconds a patient is diagnosed worldwide. Because the common forms of dementia occur in the elderly, delaying the onset or worsening of the cognitive impairment could translate into a significant reduction of the incidence of the disease. Estimations have shown that of the huge number of cases expected by 2050, roughly 23 million could be avoided if the onset of the disease could be delayed by 2 years. Despite the ambition to identify a disease modifying therapy or a cure for dementia by 2025 set by the G8 dementia summit in 2013, the findings so far are not very encouraging.

To date there is growing evidence of the association of vascular risk factors like hypertension, high cholesterol levels or diabetes mellitus with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Unfortunately, simply managing these risk factors had little effect in reducing the incidence of dementia. These factors, however, strongly increase the risk of a patient to suffer an ischemic stroke and incident stroke approximately doubles the risk of dementia. From the study of Saver published in 2006 we know that “each hour in which treatment fails to occur the brain loses as many neurons as it does in 3.6 years of normal aging”.

These neuronal losses occur through ischemic necrosis in the core of the infarction, but may be prolonged up to 2 weeks after the ischemic insult in the penumbral area surrounding the ischemic core through another type of cell loss, namely apoptosis. In initiating apoptosis oxidative species have a major role. Several authors have shown consistent increases in oxidative stress after an ischemic stroke. As the authors pointed out in a previous study, oxidative stress increases mainly after cardioembolic stroke, followed by lacunar stroke, with a less prolonged burst of generation of oxidative species following thrombotic stroke.

There is a considerable overlap between the oxidative stress-induced pathogenesis in ischemic stroke and Alzheimer’s disease including mitochondrial dysfunction (the mitochondria being the main generators of energy in the cells), calcium overload of the cells, activation of different destructive enzymes by the excess intracellular calcium, aberrant gene transcription and expression, induction of autophagy (a process by which cells degrade their own cytoplasmic proteins and organelles) and activation of inflammatory responses.

Despite promising results of antioxidant molecules in animal models of ischemic stroke, human clinical trials were disappointing possibly due to late administration and incorrect selection of patients. However, in a study published in 2019 edaravone (an antioxidant molecule) given within 48 hours after endovascular revascularization in acute ischemic stroke was associated with greater functional independence at hospital discharge, lower in-hospital mortality and reduced intracranial hemorrhage after admission in a study which enrolled over 10,000 patients. More recently in a report presented at the International Stroke Conference 2020, nerinetide or NA1, a molecule which reduces endogenous nitric oxide (also an oxidative species) generated inside the cell during ischemia, improved the outcome of ischemic stroke patients who underwent endovascular thrombectomy. Unfortunately, NA1 interacted with alteplase, limiting its efficiency in patients who were also thrombolysed.

Antioxidants have been evaluated also in degenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease included, with promising results in animal models but inconclusive results in clinical trials. Therapeutic strategies are hampered by the dual role of oxidative species in the organism. On one hand, increased ROS production contributes to age-related chronic conditions and on the other, oxidant species function as signaling molecules in pathways that are critical for cell survival. However, based on the compelling evidence of the implication of oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis and of the pivotal role of mitochondria, molecules acting as mitochondria-targeted antioxidants show promise in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, improve mitochondrial function after coronary ischemia/reperfusion in rats, and some have already been developed into drugs used in clinical trials in type 2 diabetic patients.

In view of the implication of oxidative stress in the genesis of AD pathology, the authors hypothesize that with aging, in the presence of well-established vascular risk factors, and possibly with a genetic contribution, AD pathology develops slowly without clinically overt cognitive impairment. However, after a stroke there is a sudden burst in oxidative stress which accelerates the pathogenesis of dementia and leads to clinically obvious cognitive impairment. If this hypothesis would be proven the reason for reaching antioxidant treatment in acute ischemic stroke would be reinforced. Further studies in this direction with long follow-up periods would be needed. Nonetheless, in view of the high incidence and prevalence of the disease, the results could be rewarding. Read the full Press Release to find out more: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-07/bsp-ati070220.php

For further information, please visit: https://bit.ly/3858ONy

Press Release – Nutraceuticals for promoting longevity

BENTHAM SCIENCE PUBLISHERS

Aging is considered to be synonymous with the appearance of major diseases and an overall decline in physical and mental performance. This mini-review summarizes the main findings on nutraceuticals that are believed to slow aging processes by delaying and even preventing the development of multiple chronic diseases. These nutraceuticals may help improve productivity and quality of life in the elderly. Researchers from Migal-Galilee Research Institute (Israel), University of Ljubljana (Slovenia) and University of Belgrade (Serbia) have contributed their review after conducting a literature review work published on of nutraceuticals. The research found that the most robust environmental manipulation for extending lifespan is caloric restriction without malnutrition. Some nutraceuticals can mimic caloric restriction effects. Caloric restriction is well established as a strategy to extend lifespan without malnutrition. A variety of nutraceuticals were reported to mimic the effect of caloric restriction by modulating the activity of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling and sirtuin activity and consequently promote longevity. The review, published in Current Nutraceuticals, offers a special focus on the nutraceuticals that impact insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling and sirtuin activity in mediating longevity and healthspan. Read the full Press Release to find out more: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-06/bsp-nfp061020.php

For further information, please visit: bit.ly/NutraceuticalsforPromotingLongevity

Press Release – Current Nanomaterials indexed in Scopus

BENTHAM SCIENCE PUBLISHERS

Current Nanomaterials journal, published by Bentham Science Publishers, has been accepted for inclusion in Scopus. Scopus is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature including scientific journals, books and conference proceedings.

Current Nanomaterials, a peer reviewed journal publishes full-length/mini reviews, original research articles and thematic issues on experimental and applied research on nanomaterials. The scope covers the synthesis, structure, properties, characterization and application of nanomaterials. The journal will cover all areas of nanomaterial science, engineering and nanotechnology with emphasis on all aspects of research on a wide range of nanomaterials including nanocomposites, inorganic materials, polymeric and biological materials and hybrid materials.

This inter-disciplinary journal will be of interest to scientists in both the physical and biomedical/pharmaceutical related disciplines in nanoscience research. Read the full Press Release to find out more: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-06/bsp-cni062920.php

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For more information about the journal, please visit: https://benthamscience.com/journals/current-nanomaterials/

Press Release – The University Of Bath and Bentham Science sign a ‘read and publish’ agreement

The University of Bath and Bentham Science continue their existing access license agreement and add ‘READ AND PUBLISH’ elements for Bath academic community

BENTHAM SCIENCE PUBLISHERS

Bentham Science and University of Bath are pleased to announce their partnership through the ‘Read and Publish’ Agreement. With this partnership the faculty, library and others affiliated with the university can access the entire host of more than 100 Bentham Science journals including archival access to the older volumes of all titles. The contract also gives the researchers from the university, an opportunity to publish their research under an Open Access license at discounted rates.

The University of Bath is a public university located in Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1966. Over the years, the university has established itself as a top 10 UK university with a reputation for research and teaching excellence. It is ranked as the 6th best university in the UK by the Guardian University Guide 2020. Also, the university is ranked 5th for graduate prospects by The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2020.

Bentham Science is a science, technology, and medical (STM) publisher, providing academic researchers and industrial professionals with the latest information in diverse fields of science and technology. Bentham Science currently publishes more than 100 journals in both electronic and printed formats. These journals cover various disciplines in pharmaceutical research and development, medical subspecialties, engineering, technology, and social sciences. The journals are indexed in recognized indexing services, such as Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, MEDLINE/Index Medicus, PubMed, Scopus, Chemical Abstracts, and EMBASE. Read the full Press Release to find out more: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-06/bsp-tuo062320.php

For more information please contact: joost@benthamscience.net

Press Release – Does sarcoponic obesity link to metabolic syndrome? An issue that needs clarification

BENTHAM SCIENCE PUBLISHERS

In the last two decades a new phenotype termed as Sarcopenic Obesity “SO” has emerged. There is still a debate regarding the negative impact of SO on health outcomes, especially in terms of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases; with the speculation that the two components of SO, namely the increase of fat deposition and the reduction in muscle mass and strength, seem to act synergistically to increase the adverse consequences on health, however this hypothesis has not been confirmed.

In this view, a group of Lebanese investigators from Beirut Arab University (Lebanon) and their colleagues from the University of Oxford (UK) and Gunma Paz University (Japan), conducted in adherence to the international PRISMA guidelines a systematic review and meta-analysis with the main scope to provide benchmark data on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) among individuals with SO, as well as to detect the potential association between the presence of SO and the higher risk of Mets.

Of the 606 articles retrieved, 12 studies including a total of 11,308 adults with obesity of both genders met the inclusion criteria, revealing two main findings. Firstly, a similar overall prevalence of Mets in individuals with SO when compared to those without SO was identified. Second, the presence of SO appears not to increase the risk of Mets with respect to those without SO.

The principal investigator Professor Marwan El Ghoch – Chairperson of the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics at the Beirut Arab University comments…”this finding has clinical implications, as health providers, especially clinicians, should be aware of the high prevalence of Mets in individuals with obesity (55-60%), however, the coexistence of sarcopenia appears not to increase the risk of Mets in this population (i.e., SO).

However, El Ghoch underlines that…”despite the fact that we were not able to find a higher prevalence of Mets among individuals with SO compared to those with only obesity (non-SO), nor an association between the latter and a higher risk of Mets; these findings should be interpreted with caution before jumping to conclusions, due to the limitations of the included studies in our systematic review, foremost the cross-sectional design of most of the included studies, our finding needs to be replicated through longitudinal studies to clarify the real effect of SO on the onset and progression of Mets before drawing any firm conclusion. Read the full Press Release to find out more: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-06/bsp-dso060920.php

To get the full-text article, please visit the following link:

http://www.eurekaselect.com/179354/article

Press Release – Large-scale analysis of protein arginine methylation by mass spectrometry

The article by Dr. Tiziana Bonaldi et al. is published in Current Protein & Peptide Science, 2020

Methylation (namely addition of a methyl group) of arginine amino acid residues of proteins is a post-translational modification (PTM) catalyzed by a family of nine enzymes called Protein Arginine Methyl-Transferases (PRMTs).

PRMTs have been gaining increasing attention in the scientific landscape due their role in several essential physiological processes and implication in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders; loss of PRMT1 is lethal at the early developmental stages, while overexpression is frequently observed in different tumor types and correlates with poor patient prognosis, suggesting that inhibition of PRMTs may represent an effective therapeutic approach in oncology. Moreover, PTM levels are deregulated in different tumor types, and both local and global changes in PTM of the DNA-associated proteins – the histones – are linked to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Due to the large body of scientific evidence indicating their role in cell pathophysiology, several PRMT inhibitors have been designed and developed as a potential new class of drugs. For instance, a potent, reversible type I PRMT inhibitor has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in human cancer models and some of the molecular candidates have entered clinical trials for solid tumors and lymphomas.

“Although it was first described in 1968,” says Dr Tiziana Bonaldi, Group Leader at the European Institute of Oncology, “for almost 30 years, very little was known about the extent of protein arginine methylation, its effect on protein activity, and its biological role. The first PRMT, capable of catalyzing arginine methylation, was discovered in 1996 and, since then, nine proteins exerting the same functions have been discovered. However, inefficient analytical approaches have largely limited a comprehensive understanding of their biological function. Quantitative Mass spectrometry has emerged as the ideal analytical strategy to study the extent of protein arginine-methylation in model systems and identify PRMT targets, thus contributing substantial knowledge in this field.”

In their article published in Current Protein & Peptide Science, Dr. Bonaldi and co-workers offer an overview on state-of-the-art arginine methyl-proteomics, describing the innovations that led – from the description by Mathias Mann’s group of the first high-quality methyl-proteome in 2004 – to the latest studies that profile protein-methylation events occurring on hundreds of cellular proteins. Throughout this review, the authors describe the implementations both in the biochemical methods and in the computational methods for Mass spectrometry data analysis or the identification of sites of arginine methylation, discussing the pros and cons of the most common strategies employed.

Furthermore, relevant issues related to protein-arginine methylation analysis that are still under development are also discussed, such as the discrimination of symmetric and asymmetric arginine-di-methylation from Mass spectrometry fragmentation spectra. “These two modifications have identical mass, yet they are catalyzed by different PRMTs and have substantially different biological outcomes,” explains Bonaldi; “Indeed, even though, for instance, both have a role in regulation of transcription, while asymmetric di-methylation is activating, symmetric di-methylation is repressive. Therefore, being able to distinguish between the two processes is crucial.”

Finally, major emphasis is devoted to the heavy methyl SILAC strategy, a variation of the more conventional SILAC (Stable Isotope Labelling with Amino acids in Cell culture). “The heavy methyl SILAC strategy was designed to increase the confidence of in vivo arginine methyl-peptides identification by Mass spectrometry,” – continues Bonaldi – “and the use will be facilitated by the recent development of ad hoc algorithms tailored for processing of heavy methyl SILAC datasets, such as MethylQuant and hmSEEKER.”

Importantly, the authors conclude that optimization of the currently available analytical approaches and their systematic application will play a key role in the future research on the involvement of protein methylation in biological processes, providing critical insights in the related cellular biology processes and likely offering potential novel targets to be exploited in a clinical context. Read the full Press Release to find out more: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-05/bsp-lao052220.php

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To get the full-text article, please visit the following link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/181344/article

Press Release | Diminished returns of educational attainment on heart disease among black Americans

 

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This article by Dr. Shervin Assari et al. is published in The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal, Volume 14, 2020

In a fair society, education is expected to be the great equalizer. This is based on the belief that education enabled people to escape poverty and join the middle class. In the United States, education is listed as a key strategy to achieve the American dream, even for people born to poor families. Education also protects individuals against heart disease. People’s risk of heart disease is lowest in the most and highest in the least educated people.

In the most recent issue of The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal, Assari and colleagues explored the racial and ethnic variation in the link between education and heart disease in a nationally representative sample of American adults. The authors analyzed data of 25,659 American adults who participated in the first wave of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH- 2013). They categorize individuals based on education to less than a high school diploma, high school graduate, and college graduate. Then they compared race/ethnicity by education groups for the prevalence of heart disease.

Individuals with highest education had the lowest prevalence of heart disease. However, this protective effect was weaker for Hispanic and Black than for non-Hispanic and White individuals. That means, highly educated Black and Hispanic people remained at high risk of heart disease.

This finding is an extension of the Marginalization related Diminished Returns (MDRs) which refer to the weaker health benefits of education for racial and ethnic minority groups compared to Whites. While we knew that highly educated Black and Hispanic Americans remain at risk of obesity, poor diet, depression, tobacco use, and sedentary lifestyle, this was the first study to document the same pattern for heart disease.

Possibly due to the racism and social stratification, in the US, education is not the great equalizer but a source of health inequalities. Read full Press Release to find out more: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-05/bsp-dro050620.php

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This article is open access and its full-text can be obtained from the following link: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOCMJ-14-5

Press Release | Children & coronavirus infection (COVID-19): How to avoid post-traumatic stress disorder

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This editorial by Prof. Michele Roccella is published in The Open Pediatric Medicine Journal, Volume 10, 2020

 

COVID-19 is a pandemic that has forced many states to declare restrictive measures in order to prevent their wider spread. These measures are necessary to protect the health of adults, children and people with disabilities. Long quarantine periods could cause an increase in anxiety crisis, fear of contagion and post-traumatic stress disorder (frustration, boredom, isolation, fear, insomnia, difficulty concentrating).

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops as a consequence of one or more physical or psychological traumatic events, such as exposure to natural disasters such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis; wars, torture, death threats; road accidents, robbery, air accidents; diseases with unfavorable prognosis; complicated or traumatic mourning; physical and sexual abuse and abuse during childhood; victimization and discrimination based on gender, sexual orientation, gender identity. It can also develop following changes in lifestyle habits caused by the COCOVID-19 epidemic. The arrival of the pandemic caused by the Coronavirus (Covid-19) in the world is bringing families, teachers, educators and all the people who care for children every day. Long quarantine periods could cause an increase in anxiety crisis, fear of contagion and post-traumatic stress disorder (frustration, boredom, isolation, fear, insomnia, difficulty concentrating). It is important to speak calmly and directly to children.

The child may also be told that isolation is needed to avoid contact with the virus until we have effective drugs or a vaccine. For children, staying at home is not a problem, they are used to holidays; they spend their time playing, watching television, talking with family members, in some cases where the restrictive measures are not too strict, I can play outdoors. In these cases it is essential to reassure the children, to structure their day, to divide the times and spaces according to patterns and rhythms. We can say that based on previous quarantine experiences that long periods of isolation can lead to psychological symptoms such as emotional disturbances, depression, stress, mood disturbances, irritability, insomnia and signs of traumatic post-stress disorders. Therefore it is important to be able to explain to children what is happening and how to manage this traumatic event following the COVID-19 pandemic. Read full Press Release to find out more: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-05/bsp-cc050620.php

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This editorial can be obtained from the following link: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOPEDJ-10-1

Press Release | Bentham Science announces an important new journal, ‘Coronaviruses’

bentham science news release

 

BENTHAM SCIENCE PUBLISHERS

Bentham Science announces an important new journal, Coronaviruses to cover the latest research on coronavirus- related outbreak and the methods employed to treat coronavirus infections. Every article in the first issue of the journal will be published as Open Access (Free-to-download) for a limited time period of three months. The Editor-in-Chief of the journal is Prof. D. Liu at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Wuhan , China, a world leading institution on virus research. The Honorary Editors of the journal are Prof. Ferid Murad (Nobel Laureate) and Prof. Atta-Ur-Rahman, FRS (Academician Chinese Academy of Sciences, and UNESCO Science Laureate).

Coronaviruses will publish original research articles, letters, reviews/mini-reviews and guest edited thematic issues on all aspects of coronaviruses such as their origins, types, transmission, pathogenesis, epidemiological, demographic, clinical and genomic characteristics etc. The Journal will also cover case reports and studies on outbreak of coronaviruses, their symptoms, related diseases, prevention, treatment regimens and development of new drugs.

The journal will be essential reading for virologists, epidemiologists, microbiologists and healthcare workers interested in the latest information about coronaviridae. Visit the journal website for further details: https://benthamscience.com/journals/Coronaviruses/

 

Read full Press Release to find out more: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-03/bsp-bsa031720.php

Press Release | Bentham Science announces new multidisciplinary journal, ‘Current Chinese Science’

 

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BENTHAM SCIENCE PUBLISHERS

 

Bentham Science announces an important new multidisciplinary journal, Current Chinese Science. This will be the world’s largest journal with over 4,000 leading Chinese scientists involved on its editorial board.

Current Chinese Science is a peer reviewed journal with over 70 sections headed by leading Chinese scientists as Co-Editors. The journal will cover important and emerging fields in agriculture, science, engineering, medicine and other areas. The journal aims to provide researchers and scholars a strong platform to publish their work and share their findings with readers around the world. The Honorary Editors of the journal are Prof. Ferid Murad (Nobel Laureate) and Prof. Atta-Ur-Rahman, FRS (Academician Chinese Academy of Sciences, and UNESCO Science Laureate).

The journal will be essential reading for scientists and scholars involved in a variety of scientific disciplines, largely reflecting the tremendous scientific progress being made in China. Every article in the first issue of Current Chinese Science will be published as Open Access (Free-to-download) for a limited time period of three months. Visit the journal website for further details: currentchinesescience.com

 

 

Read full Press Release to find out more: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-03/bsp-bsa032420.php

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