Affective Computing: The Future of Human-Computer Interaction

Affective computing is a field of study that focuses on creating systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, and respond to human emotions. It involves the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to enable computers to understand and respond to human emotions in a natural way. This technology has applications in a wide range of fields, including healthcare, education, entertainment, and marketing.

At its core, affective computing seeks to enable machines to recognize and respond to human emotions in the same way that humans do. This involves developing algorithms and software that can detect and interpret a range of emotional cues, including facial expressions, vocal intonation, body language, and other physiological signals. Once these cues are detected, affective computing systems can then use this information to adapt their responses to better suit the emotional state of the user.

One of the main goals of affective computing is to make human-computer interactions more natural and intuitive. For example, by detecting and interpreting emotional cues, a computer system could adjust its responses to better meet the needs of the user. This could include changing the tone of voice used in a virtual assistant or adjusting the difficulty level of a video game based on the player’s emotional state.

Affective computing has a wide range of potential applications in fields such as healthcare, education, marketing, and entertainment. For example, it could be used to develop more effective mental health treatments, create more engaging video games, or develop more personalized marketing campaigns.

Examples of Affective Computing

Some of the real-life examples include;

  1. Smartphones: Many smartphones now have facial recognition technology that can detect emotions. This allows for features like automatic camera filters that adjust based on your emotional expression, or personalized emojis that change depending on your mood.
  2. Social Media: Social media platforms use affective computing to analyze user data and provide personalized content. For example, Facebook’s algorithm may show you posts that it believes will elicit a positive emotional response based on your past interactions.
  3. Healthcare: Affective computing is being used in the healthcare industry to develop new forms of mental health treatment. For example, some therapists are using virtual reality technology to create immersive, emotionally stimulating environments that can help patients overcome anxiety and other mental health conditions.
  4. Advertising: Companies are using effective computing to create more effective advertising campaigns. For example, they may use eye-tracking technology to measure how long a viewer looks at certain images or to track where their gaze goes on a webpage, helping them to optimize their advertising strategies.
  5. Gaming: Game developers are using effective computing to create more engaging video games. For example, games may use facial recognition technology to detect players’ emotions and adjust the game experience accordingly, or use biofeedback sensors to measure physiological responses like heart rate or skin conductance, which can be used to create more immersive gaming experiences.

However, there are also concerns about the ethical implications of affective computing. Critics worry that the technology could be used to manipulate or exploit users’ emotions, or that it could be used to make decisions that should be made by humans. As the field continues to evolve, it will be important for researchers and developers to address these concerns and ensure that the technology is used in a responsible and ethical manner.

Affective Computing in Action: Real-Life Applications and Benefits

In the future, affective computing is expected to play an increasingly important role in our daily lives, with the potential to revolutionize the way we interact with technology and with each other. As this technology continues to develop, it is likely that we will see even more advanced systems that are capable of accurately interpreting and responding to a wider range of human emotions.

To learn more about affective computing, check out this excellent new resource by Gyanendra K. Verma (Assistant Professor at Department of Information technology, National Institute of Technology Raipur), Multimodal Affective Computing: Affective Information Representation, Modelling, and Analysis. The book offers readers a concise overview of the state-of-the-art and emerging themes in affective computing, including a comprehensive review of the existing approaches in applied affective computing systems and social signal processing.

Get it on Amazon: Kindle / paperback

AI: From Early Expert Systems to Mainstream AI Chatbots

Back in 2015, a foundation had been laid by the founders of Open AI with a goal to promote a more preferable quality of life. Artificial Intelligence has been playing an integral part with in our society for the past few decades now. One of best examples of AI in our daily lives is that of the software in a smart phone which has incorporated this technology in photos, maps and many more features. And Open AI’s recent ChatGPT has already created a huge mainstream buzz for the technology.

Artificial Intelligence was first coined by John McCarthy a computer scientist from Boston, Massachusetts and in 1956 he defined Artificial Intelligence (AI) as The Science and engineering of making intelligent machines”.

Throughout the 60’s and 70’s, research on AI was slow because computing power and funding was inadequate. It was not until the introduction and commercial success of the Expert systems that allowed the research in AI to bring its spark back into the mainstream world. An Expert system is a computer system imitating the decision-making ability of a human expert, these systems were designed to solve complex problems by reasoning through bodies of knowledge, represented mainly as ‘if–then’ rules rather than through conventional procedural code like we do today. The first expert systems were created in the 1970s and then their usage increased over the next decade. These were the first ever successful AI software. A prime example is the MYCINexpert system. MYCIN was an early expert system developed in the early 1970s at Stanford University in Lisp computing language. It used artificial intelligence to identify bacteria causing severe infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis. The system would recommend antibiotics, with the dosage adjusted for patient’s body weight.

Today, there are several disciplines that rely on AI such in natural sciences, medicine and engineering. AI employs methods such as machine learning, deep learning and natural language processing, and computer simulations to automate and solve many problems. We can see examples of advanced applications self-driving cars and online recommender systems which have had an impact on our quality of life. This new technology is also helping scientists to compile and analyze big data, empowering them to quickly generate structured and understandable results.

AI technology like ChatGPT has been rapidly evolving, with some software getting weekly, and sometimes daily updates. But it’s clear that the potential of AI has some room for improvement. That makes the future look exciting, but also brings up more unanswered questions.

Today, there are many journals that cover the field of artificial intelligence, that have published cutting-edge research papers that truly showcase the power of AI for specific tasks. Bentham Science has recently initiated a journal in this space – The Chinese Journal of Artificial Intelligence (CJAI) – which explores the diverse applications of AI in research from China. You can learn more about the journal here. CJAI also supports Open Access publishing, making AI research in the region more accessible to millions of readers for free. Just like the technologies being funded by Open AI.

Global warming and climate change – a brief explanation

Our planet is artificially warming because of the greenhouse gases we are spewing into our air. When we burn fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, we also inadvertently produce CO2, a greenhouse gas. It can’t be helped. Everything we do requires energy, from the cars we drive, to the products made in factories, even the food we eat. And most of this energy requires burning fuels.

That would be ok if our planet was in balance with our sun. That is, if the heat the Earth gives off was exactly the same as the heat the sun warms us with. But in the past hundred years this balance has been grievously upset leading to less of the Earth’s heat able to escape into space since the greenhouse gases inhibit it. It’s the same as when we wrap a blanket around us to keep our body heat from escaping on a cold evening. Due to the excess heat, our planet’s temperature increases and unfortunately, it is continuing to increase.

Global warming causes our climate to change that is to degrade, which is never a good thing for people. Our plans to thrive, maybe even just to survive have been thrown into disarray by our inability to slow down our use of fossil fuels. And global warming doesn’t just cause dangerous rising temperatures: it also leads to rising sea levels, monster storms, greatly reduced food production (which can spur violence), flooding, and more.

Look no further than the natural disasters it has already caused: Widespread flooding such as the ones Pakistan experienced in 2022, extreme weather changes and temperature drops like the winter storm Uri in Texas in 2021, brutal storms such as Hurricanes Sandy, Katrina, Harvey, and Irma all driven by global warming, and irreversible tipping points such as ocean acidification, rainforest diebacks, and melting polar ice.

Yes, there is no doubt global warming is life threatening, affecting our way of living and maybe even our survival. But with problems come opportunities. We can solve global warming and by so doing we can also prosper. It’s not simple but it is doable. But only if we act now.

Still not convinced about global warming? Check out Robert “Bob” De Saro’s new book A Crisis Like No Other: Understanding and Defeating Global Warming. In his book, Bob provides everything you need to know about our climate change crisis from the psychology of denial and what to do about it, to the science behind global warming, and how we can solve it. Bob’s book is fast paced, easy to read, at times humorous, and always scientifically accurate. Now it is your turn. And your opportunity, so let’s get to it while we still can.

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Drug repurposing: What is it and what does it mean for modern drug development?

Drug repurposing (also known as drug repositioning or DR) is a strategy for discovering new uses for FDA approved and investigational drugs. It is therefore, an effective process for identifying new therapeutic uses for old/existing and available drugs. Drug Repurposing offers several advantages over developing a novel drug for a given sign. There are examples from our past are which provide ample amount of evidence in favor of drug repurposing or drug repositioning.  

Better the drugs you know than the drugs you do not know

It is a promising, fast, and cost effective method that has allowed researchers to forfeit traditional methodologies in drug discovery and development. Traditional methods of finding new drugs take a long time, and there are many regulatory barriers. It can take 9-10 years for a new medicine to come to the market through the normal method.

Some examples of drug repurposing

Drug repurposing is not a new activity. Some examples include

Aspirin is a Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) an antithrombotic medicine used for pain, fever and / or inflammation since 1899 all over the world. 

Thalidomide was first introduced as an oral medication used by pregnant women to relieve morning sickness, anxiety, sleeping disorder. Now it is used as a first line treatment for multiples of cancer types including Multiple myeloma and various skin conditions such as leprosy and it is consumed orally.

Sildenafil a drug introduced initially as a reliever of heart pain but later new uses were discovered for it as a medication for erectile dysfunction which is now prescribed over 2 million times in the USA and is cited as a prime example for Drug Repositioning / Drug Repurposing.

A recent example for of drug repurposing is COVID-19 medication which utilized anti-parasitic drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine which were repurposed for the treatment of the disease.

Although drug repurposing is an effective way of treatment it does come with limitations such as a high cost of clinical trials, lack of patent protection and commercialization, FDA offers only a period of three years exclusively for a new use of previously used drug for a new indication, which is a very short period of time to regain the invested money and in case a loss for the pharmaceutical industry.

The pharmaceutical industry has seen a lot of changes over the past few decades, Covid-19 vaccine and the case of Viagra before that has produced a whole new meaning of Drug Repurposing. It is beneficial at most times but this does not mean that they do not have any short comings.

You can read all about drug repurposing in the new book Drug Repurposing against SARS-CoV-2 (edited by Tabish Qidwai)to learn more about it.

Book link: Drug Repurposing Against SARS-CoV-2 (

Most cited: The Spectrum of Cefditoren for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTIs) in Surabaya

Author(s):Alfian Nur Rosyid*Pepy Dwi EndraswariTutik KusmiatiArina Dery PuspitasariAbdul Khairul Rizki PurbaWiwin Is EffendiSoedarsonoNasronudin and Muhammad Amin

Background: Empirical antibiotics among outpatients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTIs) are scarcely allocated in Indonesia. The study aims to evaluate the pathogens causing LRTIs, drug sensitivity test and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 90% (MIC90) of Cefditoren, Azithromycin, Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid, and Cefixime.

Methods: The study was performed in adult outpatients with LRTI that can be expectorated. Patients with diabetes mellitus, HIV, lung tuberculosis, renal or hepatic failure, and hemoptysis were excluded. We performed bacterial culture, antibiotic sensitivity, and MIC measurements of four antibiotics.

Results: There were 126 patients with LRTIs, and 61 patients were eligible for the study. We identified 69 bacteria. We found Klebsiella pneumonia (n=16; 26.23%), Staphylococcus aureus (n=11; 18%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=8; 13.11%), Acinetobacter baumanii complex (n= 4; 6.55%), Streptococcus pneumonia (n=3; 4.9%) and others bacteria as causes of LRTI. Testing MIC90 of Cefditoren and three empiric antibiotics on LRTI found that Cefditoren has a lower MIC of 90 for K. pneumonia (0.97(2.04) μg.mL-1) and S. pneumonia (0.06(0.00)μg.mL-1) than other antibiotics, but almost the same as Cefixime ((0.05(0.16)μg.mL-1) and (0.38(0.17)μg.mL-1). MIC90 Cefditoren for S.aureus (3.18(3.54)μg.mL-1) and P.aeruginosa (9.2(3.53)μg.mL-1) is lower than Cefixime but higher than Azithromycin and Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid. Reference data MIC90 of Cefditoren for LRTI bacteria is lower than the other three oral empirical antibiotics.

Conclusion: In vitro studies of an outpatient LRTI in Surabaya found gram-negative bacteria dominant. Cefditoren can inhibit K.pneumonia and S.pneumonia has a lower MIC90 compared to other antibiotics. Cefditoren can inhibit gram-negative and positive bacteria causing LRTI.

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Animated abstract: The Pathogenic Subpopulation of Th17 Cells in Obesity

Author(s):Natalia TodosenkoMaria Vulf*Kristina YurovaDaria SkuratovskaiaOlga KhaziakhmatovaNatalia GazatovaOlga MelashchenkoOlga Urazova and Larisa Litvinova

Obesity is a metabolic disease characterized by a chronic subclinical inflammatory response associated with an imbalance/dysregulation of cellular homeostasis in response to excessive nutrient intake and accumulation. CD4+ T-lymphocytes form different populations, Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, and Treg cells, which have phenotypic and functional differences. Despite the active study of Th17 cells in severe disorders, their role in metabolic disorders, particularly in obesity, is not well understood. Th17 lymphocytes, depending on the microenvironment, can form pathogenic and nonpathogenic subpopulations. Systemic inflammation induces the reprogramming of the transcriptome of normal Th17 cells formed in epithelial tissues, which acquire new properties. A zone of overlapping states exists between IL-17A-producing cells, which does not allow a clear boundary between non-pathogenic Th17 and pathogenic Th17 lymphocytes. We assume that in obesity, the pool of inflammatory pathogenic Th17 cells with cytotoxic potential is a fraction of terminally differentiated memory lymphocytes which is responsible for developing autoimmune reactions.

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Most cited article: Recent PARP Inhibitor Advancements in Cancer Therapy: A Review

Author(s): Pulla Prudvi RajKaviarasan LakshmananGowramma Byran*Kalirajan RajagopalPraveen Thaggikuppe Krishnamurthy and Divya Jyothi Palati


Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 [PARP-1] is a chromatin-bound nuclear enzyme that gets activated by DNA damage. It facilitates DNA repair by binding to DNA breaks and attracting DNA repair proteins to the site of damage. Increased PARP-1 expression is observed in melanomas, breast cancer, lung cancer, and other neoplastic diseases. PARP-1 interacts directly and indirectly with various oncogenic proteins and regulates several transcription factors, thereby modulating carcinogenesis. There is a lot of pre-clinical and clinical data supporting the use of PARP-1 inhibitors [PARP-1i] in cancers that express homologous recombination deficiencies like mutations within the BRCA-1/2 genes. Therapeutic inhibition of PARP-1 is therefore perceived as a promising anticancer strategy, and numerous PARP-1i are currently under development and clinical evaluation. Currently, there are 4 FDA-approved PARP-1i products on the market, and a few more are in the last stage of clinical development. All the molecules are non-selective PARP-1i. While giving promising results, PARP-1i has its own disadvantages, like safety problems, resistance, etc. Looking at the success rate of PARP-1i in various solid tumors, there is a need for novel and selective PARP-1i. In this review, we discuss various aspects related to PARP-1i, like recent developments, overcoming resistance, and selectivity criteria of new molecules for potential PARP-1i.

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Editorial Letter 1, 1 (2023): The Nanochemistry from basis to design and prototyping new Nanomaterials

Author(s): A. Guillermo Bracamonte et al.


This present Editorial Letter intends to discuss about Nanochemistry for targeted designs of new materials at different dimensions. Actual status of chemistry knowledge looking for bottoom up structures could show that the control of this scale length is afforded by joining Multi-disciplinary Research fields. It is noted Inorganic, Organic, Quantum materials for development of new Nanomaterials and Metamaterials currently in progress.[i] Varied Metals, Alloys, and Nanocomposites are the most known materials in progress. In similar manner Polymeric, Supramolecular, micelles, vesicles and Organized Nanomaterials are being used so far. However, the combination of them opened new strategies nominated as Hybrid Nanomaterials; as well as the generation of Metamaterials by joining different elements in closer contact to modify properties of each ones and affecting their physical and chemical species as individual entities.

In this regard and trying to show insights of high impact Research, it could be mentioned the innovation of new studies and chemical reactions within Biological media. The last Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2022, with the incorporation and application of standard organic reactions within cells showed this aspect. Moreover, the study of Quantum phenomena within cells and Quantum dots effect within biological media too.

Fundamental chemistry Research in this way showed potential developments for Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, and Bioelectronics. And, of course that tuning confined properties within the Nanoscale and beyond lead towards Metamaterials. Therefore, Chemistry and functional material from the molecular level design and synthesis points of views are of high interest.

In this regard, expanding the molecular level to 2D and 3D surfaces, the fabrication of modified substrates with perspectives of Nano-, Micro-devices, Chips, and waveguides open a huge window of new opportunities in Multi-disciplinary Research fields. It should be highlighted how the Nanoscale is surrounding our daily lives by different ways. These examples could be found from simple electronics contacts in mobile phones as well in our Biology from different natural phenomena as coagulation, protein aggregation, Optical and light driven processes, etc. From these examples the bottom up of knowledge motivates and permits innovation of new designs for targeted studies and applications.

So, success in fundamental Nano-Chemistry is one of the most high impact Research fields as it could be mentioned as follows: i) new chemical species from confined  and condensed matter; ii) hybrid multi- element compositions , where inorganic alloys and inorganic/organic composites could afford to other types of interactions between the different elements; and iii) coupling physical and Chemical phenomena; as well as iv) other types of effects and phenomena. Maybe this classification is wide and contemplates a huge number of possibilities; but it intends to wake up the study of the state of the art and knowledge in current development in order to go for further proposals. From these different Multi-disciplinary statuses, in a next step it should be continued Research and Development in order to evaluate the potential technology developments and their transfers to the market. In this context, the prototyping of modified substrates for devices and Chips is of high interest for varied applications in different Research fields and markets as well.[ii]


[i] A.Guillermo Bracamonte, “Design and Synthesis of Hybrids Graphene based Metamaterials”. Editorial Letter of Special Issue : Design and Synthesis of Graphene based Metamaterials, Current Material Science (CMS)-Recent Patents on Materials Science (Netherlands), Bentham Sci. Pub., 15, 3 (2022) 203-203. ( DOI: 10.2174/266614541503220901092124

[ii] Book entitled: “Frontiers in Nano- and Micro-device Design for Applied Nanophotonics, Biophotonics and Nanomedicine”, Chapters 1-15, authored Book by A.Guillermo Bracamonte, Bentham Science Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-68108-857-0 (Print); 978-1-68108-856-3 (Online) © 2021, Bentham Science Publishers (UAE) (2021) 1-200. ( DOI:10.2174/97816810885631210101


Animated abstract: Dietary Technologies to Optimize Healing from Injury-Induced Inflammation

Author(s):Barry Sears*Mary Perry and Asish K. Saha*


Inflammation is an acute adaptive response to injury. However, if the initial inflammatory response to an injury is not completely healed, it becomes chronic low-level inflammation that is strongly associated with many chronic disease states, including metabolic (obesity and diabetes), cardiovascular, auto-immune, and neurogenerative disorders as well as cancer. The healing process is far more complex than the initiation of inflammation. Within that complexity of healing is a sequence of events that are under profound dietary control and can be defined by specific blood markers. Those molecular events of the healing process that are under significant dietary control are termed as the Resolution Response. The purpose of this review is to describe the molecular components of the Resolution Response and how different dietary factors can either optimize or inhibit their actions. In particular, those dietary components that optimize the Resolution Response include a calorie-restricted, protein-adequate, moderate-carbohydrate, low-fat diet referred to as the Zone diet, omega-3 fatty acids, and polyphenols. The appropriate combination of these dietary interventions constitutes the foundation of Pro-Resolution Nutrition. The effect of these dietary components the actions of NF-κB, AMPK, eicosanoids, and resolvins are described in this review, as well as ranges of appropriate blood markers that indicate success in optimizing the Resolution Response by dietary interventions.

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Open access article: Formaldehyde Levels in Fabrics on the Ghanaian Market

Author(s):Patience Danquah Monnie*Rachel Amanfu and Modesta Efua Gavor

Background: Formaldehyde is a chemical used in several textile production processes, such as hardening of fibers and antimold finishing. However, it has varying effects on humans, such as irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, wheezing, chest pains and bronchitis. In the midst of COVID-19, individuals are using various fabrics for face mask production, which may be containing levels of formaldehyde that can negatively affect their health.

Methods: This study investigated formaldehyde levels in fabrics on the Ghanaian market to determine compliance to standards set by the Ghana Standards Authority (GSA) with the aid of experimental procedures. Thirty-two (32) different brands of fabrics were selected for the investigation. Formaldehyde levels were determined using a spectrophotometer (DR6000). Data were analyzed using the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) for Windows version 22. The mean performance attributes and the formaldehyde levels of the sampled fabrics were determined before and after washing. Inferential statistics (Analysis of Variance and Paired Samples t-test) at 0.05 alpha levels were used to determine significant differences between and among the groups involved.

Results: The fabric samples tested positive for formaldehyde before and after washing, with some exceeding the standard limits set by the GSA before washing. Significant differences existed between and among the samples with regard to formaldehyde levels as well as weight and weave types of the samples and formaldehyde levels.

Conclusion: Washing significantly reduced the formaldehyde levels in the fabrics. It is recommended that Ghana Standards Authority takes a further look at the fabrics on the Ghanaian market to ensure manufacturers comply with set standards and consumers are also advised to wash their clothes at least once before use to reduce the level of impact formaldehyde resin may have on them.

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