Open access article: Formaldehyde Levels in Fabrics on the Ghanaian Market

Author(s):Patience Danquah Monnie*Rachel Amanfu and Modesta Efua Gavor

Background: Formaldehyde is a chemical used in several textile production processes, such as hardening of fibers and antimold finishing. However, it has varying effects on humans, such as irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, wheezing, chest pains and bronchitis. In the midst of COVID-19, individuals are using various fabrics for face mask production, which may be containing levels of formaldehyde that can negatively affect their health.

Methods: This study investigated formaldehyde levels in fabrics on the Ghanaian market to determine compliance to standards set by the Ghana Standards Authority (GSA) with the aid of experimental procedures. Thirty-two (32) different brands of fabrics were selected for the investigation. Formaldehyde levels were determined using a spectrophotometer (DR6000). Data were analyzed using the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) for Windows version 22. The mean performance attributes and the formaldehyde levels of the sampled fabrics were determined before and after washing. Inferential statistics (Analysis of Variance and Paired Samples t-test) at 0.05 alpha levels were used to determine significant differences between and among the groups involved.

Results: The fabric samples tested positive for formaldehyde before and after washing, with some exceeding the standard limits set by the GSA before washing. Significant differences existed between and among the samples with regard to formaldehyde levels as well as weight and weave types of the samples and formaldehyde levels.

Conclusion: Washing significantly reduced the formaldehyde levels in the fabrics. It is recommended that Ghana Standards Authority takes a further look at the fabrics on the Ghanaian market to ensure manufacturers comply with set standards and consumers are also advised to wash their clothes at least once before use to reduce the level of impact formaldehyde resin may have on them.

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Meet the Editorial Board Member

Author(s): Lei Chen

Prof. Wei Chen received his PhD degree in Theoretical Biophysics from Inner Mongolia University in 2010. Now, he is a professor at Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. His researches focus on Bioinformatics and Machine Learning, and several related works have been published in Nucleic Acids Research, Bioinformatics, Briefings in Bioinformatics. As indicated by
google scholar, his more than100 academic peer review papers have been cited over 15000 times. At
present, he serves as the Deputy Editor of Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids, Editorial Board Member of Current Bioinformatics, Current Gene Therapy, Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences, and Reviewer for Nature Communications, Nucleic Acids Research, Bioinformatics, Briefings in Bioinformatics, etc.


Editorial Letter: Insights in the generation of fundamental Research within Nanophotonics towards design of miniaturized devices

Author(s): A.Guillermo Bracamonte et al.

Summary Abstract

Fundamental Research of material chemistry could afford to the design of very different types of materials. However not so many lead to the frontiers of advanced materials with their incorporations within modified substrates with perspectives for fabrication of devices. This close contact between the generation of new knowledge and properties from real and tangible Optical Set Ups show this dual capability to generate both fronts related with confined physical and chemical properties. It could be highlighted Quantum properties, semiconductors, and Photonics with a wide view of studies and applications. Many ongoing studies about intrinsic properties of matter and explanatory mechanism and Photo-physical phenomena associated are not completely understood. Thus, their interactions with other types of materials accompanied with different properties could afford to new ones as well. And, in this context, these new properties could be considered as Meta-properties that are not explained just by the sum of all the components involucred in the photon, electron, quantum-matter interactions. Therefore, the combinations of different Nanomaterials and Quantum properties could lead to new Metamaterials based on condensed matter. So, this is just an introduction to note the importance Research and developments focused on variable Optical Set Ups and control of chemistry and Physical properties within solid substrates and within colloidal dispersions. And in this way, highlight current developments on the “Frontiers in Nano- and Micro-device Design for Applied Nanophotonics, Biophotonics and Nanomedicine.[1] Varied themes and topics related are discussed in a recent published Bentham Book authored by A. G. Bracamonte et al. 2021. Therefore, it is stimulated and discussed how it could be developed the bottom up from the control of the Quantum, and Nanoscale within confined Nanomaterials towards higher sized materials to tune new properties based on variable coupled physical and chemical phenomena. By this manner, it could be found a factor in common that show potential perspectives in the bottom up from single molecules to the control of Nanochemistry and Quantum chemistry to be transferred to Miniaturized-devices, Chips, Light Emitters Devices, and Multi-functional devices. So, in the ongoing series of Letters, it will be discussed insights of the mentioned themes and topics highlighting advances in Nanotechnology, Biotechnology and further applications. You are welcomed to get in touch looking for the developments of new ideas and the next generation of experimental design, proposals; and Nano-, Micro-technology.

[1] Book entitled: “Frontiers in Nano- and Micro-device Design for Applied Nanophotonics, Biophotonics and Nanomedicine”, Chapters 1-15, authored Book by A.Guillermo Bracamonte, Bentham Science Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-68108-857-0 (Print); 978-1-68108-856-3 (Online) © 2021, Bentham Science Publishers (UAE) (2021) 1-200. DOI:10.2174/97816810885631210101


EDITORIAL: Pharmacogenetics for Improving Efficacy and Safety in Drug Development and for Reducing Costs in Alzheimer’s Disease

Author(s): Ramón Cacabelos*

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a growing health problem in terms of economics and care burden for families and health systems worldwide. The number of AD cases is estimated to rise from 57.4 million in 2019 to 152.8 million cases in 2050 (female-to-male ratio of 1.67-1.69), with considerable geographical differences in percentage increase (the highincome Asia Pacific, 53%; Western Europe, 74%; North Africa and the Middle East, 367%; Eastern sub-Saharan Africa, 357%) [1]. The average cost per patient/year ranges from $30,000 to $60,000, depending on the country (USA: $15,000/year; Europe: €7,000/year; Japan: JPY18 million/year), disease stage, quality of care and social status (global cost of dementia: US$800 billion worldwide; >1% GDP) [2].

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A Podcast by Sari Goldstein Ferber: When the Mind Comes to Live Inside the Body: The Ontogeny of the Perceptual Control Clock

Author(s):Sari Goldstein Ferber*Ronny Geva and Aron Weller


In this editorial, we discuss the neurobiological processes underlying the early emergence of awareness that we term the “when” and “how” the mind comes to live inside the body. We describe an accumulative developmental process starting during embryonic life and continuing to fetal and postnatal development, of coupling of heart rate, body movements, and sleep states on the behavioral level with underlying mechanisms on the structural, functional, cellular, and molecular levels. A developmental perspective is proposed based on Perceptual Control Theory (PCT). This includes a developing sequence of modules starting from early sensing of neural intensities to early manifestation of human mindful capacities. We also address pharmacological treatments administered to preterm infants, which may interfere with this development, and highlight the need to consider this potential “side effect” of current pharmaceuticals when developing novel pharmacogenomic treatments.

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Editors choice: Cognition, Symptomatology, and Community Living Skills in Schizophrenia

Author(s): Wai Yee SinWai Nga WongYi To Michelle LoUen Ting Elizabeth TseHoi Wai Helen WongKa Yin Elizabeth TungAmy Dun-mi Fung and Michael Chih Chien Kuo*

Background: Independence in community living is an important aspect of rehabilitation in schizophrenia. Previous studies investigating relationships of cognitive, symptomatic, and demographic factors in community living ability of schizophrenia showed inconsistent findings. These findings may be due to variations in functional measures used or a heterogenous sample of participants recruited.

Aim: To investigate the relationships of cognitive, symptomatic and demographic factors with community living skills for people with schizophrenia living in supported living facilities.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Thirty-seven adults with schizophrenia and 32 matched healthy controls were recruited. Both groups completed the Verbal Fluency Test, subtests of Cognistat, and the Color Trail Test. Additional assessments (i.e., Chinese version of St. Louis Inventory of Community Living Skills – SLICLS-C and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale – PANSS) were used to evaluate participants with schizophrenia. Cognitive profile was compared between the two groups. Correlation analysis was used to explore the relationships of cognitive abilities, symptomatology, and demographic factors with community living skills in schizophrenia.

Results: Results showed that participants with schizophrenia performed worse than the control group in verbal fluency, visual memory, immediate memory, delayed memory, and executive function tests. Significant moderate correlations between SLICLS-C score and participants’ years of education, positive symptoms, general psychopathology, and PANSS total score were identified.

Discussions and Conclusion: Results indicated that cognitive impairments are persistent in schizophrenia who are in remission and have been partially integrated back into the community. Cognitive deficits that people with schizophrenia experience might be stable over most of the course of the illness. Participants’ years of education, positive symptoms, general psychopathology, and PANSS total score might be important moderating variables to include in future investigations related to predicting community living performance in schizophrenia.

Aims & Scope: Current Psychiatry Research and Reviews

Current Psychiatry Research & Reviews publishes peer-reviewed expert reviews, original research articles and single topic guest-edited issues dedicated to clinical research on all the latest advances in clinical psychiatry and its related areas, e.g. pharmacology, epidemiology, clinical care and therapy. The journal is essential reading for all clinicians, psychiatrists and researchers working in the field of psychiatry. The aims and scope of the journal cover all aspects of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in humans, such as depression, panic disorder, PTSD, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, borderline personality disorder, eating disorders, delusions and hallucinations, psychosis, bipolar disorder, insomnia, substance use disorder, addictive behavior, etc. In addition, treatment of such diseases through psychotherapy, medications, psychosocial interventions, and somatic treatment is also included.

Editor’s Choice – Flexible Bronchoscopy Biopsy Tools and Techniques to Optimize Diagnostic Yield: A Contemporary Review

Author(s):Snehamayi Ramayanam and Jonathan Puchalski*

Volume 17, Issue 3, 2021

Published on: 15 July, 2021

Page: [129 – 138]

Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X17666210716101940


Background: Flexible bronchoscopy is essential in diagnosing many pathologic conditions, and tools such as lavage and biopsies using brushes, forceps, and needles are paramount to success.

Introduction: Bronchoscopists worldwide are routinely confronted with questions about such tools regarding the type, size, utility, costs, safety, anticipated yield, and others. Does the underlying suspected condition matter to the choice of instruments used? What is the anticipated outcome for benign versus malignant diseases? These and other questions are raised daily by bronchoscopists.

Methods: Pubmed was reviewed for research in the English language pertaining to diagnostic bronchoscopy. The literature is conflicting on the benefits of the types of tools available. The success of brush biopsies, forceps, and transbronchial needle aspiration is only partially dependent on the size of the instrument used or its other characteristics. Multiple biopsies are needed, and different approaches may be complementary in some circumstances.

Results: By understanding the factors that involve in a biopsy, the bronchoscopist is more likely to be successful when a crucial diagnosis is mandatory.

Conclusion: This review aims to be a reference to bronchoscopists everywhere as they contemplate their approach to flexible diagnostic bronchoscopy. Read now:

Editor’s Choice – Comparison Between Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipients Admitted to a Referral Center Regarding Coronavirus-2019 Manifestations in the Northeast of Iran During Three Peaks of Pandemic

Author(s):Mohsen AliakbarianRozita Khodashahi *Mahin Ghorban SabbaghHamid Reza Naderi Mandana Khodashahi Shahrzad Jahanian and Maliheh Dadgar Moghaddam

Volume 17, Issue 4, 2021

Published on: 09 December, 2021

Page: [232 – 241]

Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X17666211122160608


Background: Transplant recipients are at high risk for severe Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Transplant recipients are immune-compromised individuals at high risk for severe infection. This study aimed to compare the presentations and outcomes of liver and kidney transplant recipients who were infected with COVID-19 in the Iranian population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Imam Reza and Montaserieh Hospitals affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, between 2020 and 2021. In general, 52 patients were selected and divided into two groups of the kidney (n=28) and liver (n=24) transplantation. Two groups were compared in terms of demographic characteristics and clinical findings.

Results: Of the 52 patients, severe COVID-19 infection was reported in 61% of the patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of symptoms, except for cough (χ2=8.09; P=0.004), clinical condition, and laboratory symptoms, except for creatinine (Z=14; P<0.005), alkaline phosphatase (Z=4.55; P=0.03), total bilirubin (Z=8.93; P=0.03), and partial thromboplastin time (Z=5.97; P=0.01). There was no relationship between the outcome and the use of immunosuppressive medications (P>0.05). All patients with kidney transplantation survived, while two cases in the liver transplantation group failed to survive (χ2=2.42; P=0.11).

Conclusion: The mortality rate was higher in the liver transplant recipients, compared to the patients who underwent kidney transplantation. Read now:

Editor’s Choice – Changes in Physiological Variables in Patients with Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease in the Six-minute Walk Test

Author(s):Jhonatan Betancourt-Peña*Daniela Domínguez-MuñozPaola Salazar-Vargas and Juan Carlos Ávila-Valencia 

Volume 17, Issue 4, 2021

Published on: 06 December, 2021

Page: [252 – 259]

Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X17666211201114933


Objective: Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease (DILD) is a pathology with a high mortality rate in Colombia as well as around the world. Linking patients to pulmonary rehabilitation programs is essential to improve their quality of life and aerobic capacity; thus, all patients perform the six-minute walk test (6-MWT). This study aimed to describe the changes in physiological and aerobic capacity-related variables in patients with DILD in the 6-MWT at admission to a pulmonary rehabilitation program and determine possible differences between patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) and other DILDs.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study on patients with DILD who performed the 6- MWT between January 2017 and February 2019. Sociodemographic, clinical, physiological, and exercise tolerance variables were taken into account at four different times of the 6-MWT: Rest time, the end, and the first and the fifth minute after the end of the test. The Human Ethics Committee endorsed the study, and all participants signed the informed consent form.

Results: There were 64 patients with DILD. The average age was 60.84 years, 53.1% were female, 73.4% required home oxygen, and 53.1% had a diagnosis of IPF. There were no statistically significant differences in the Heart Rate (HR), Respiratory Rate (RR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), Borg scale, and fatigue in lower limbs at the four evaluated moments of the test for both groups of patients with DILD (p=0.000); moreover, the FEV1/FVC ratio for patients with other DILD was higher (p=0.000). The distance traveled for IPF was 339.26 ± 124.84, while for other DILDs, it was 365.63 ± 113.00 (p=0.382).

Conclusion: Patients with other DILDs have better FEV1/FVC and travel longer distances with less dyspnea and fatigue than patients with IPF during the 6-MWT. Both groups’ HR, RR, SpO2, Borg, and fatigue variables presented significant changes during the 6-MWT. Read now:

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