Sulfoxides are key scaffolds in the synthesis of pharmaceutically active molecules. A large number of sulfoxides are indispensable ingredients in the structure of most antibiotics, biological and natural products such as Modafinil, Adrafinil, CRL-40,941 or fladrafinil, Fipronil, Oxydemetonmethyl, Omeprazole, Pantoprazole, Lansoprazole and Rabeprazole. The oxidation of sulfides is the most common and efficient strategy for the preparation of sulfoxides. Recently, many protocols based on using transition metals have been reported for the oxidation of sulfides to the sulfoxides. In this paper, we summarized a nice category of the reported protocols in the literature for the oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides. Access here:https://bit.ly/34QjnHs
By IVPN Clinical Research in collaboration with Bentham Science Publishers
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Background: The increasing incidence and mortality rate of HCC is a major concern, especially for developing countries of the world. Hence, extensive research is being carried out in order to explore new approaches for developing successful therapeutic strategies for HCC. The controversial role of oxidative stress in the prognosis and treatment of various diseases such as cancer has become an area of great interest and intrigue for many scientists throughout the world.
Objective: We aim to investigate the role of induced oxidative stress on the suppression of HCC Huh-7 cancerous cells as a therapeutic approach.
Methods: Induction of oxidative stress via H2O2 treatment produced cell cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner and also led to the overexpression of GSTP-1 and PRX-2. The expression of GSTP- 1 and PRX-2 was compared in HCC Huh-7 treated, untreated cells and normal hepatocytes using immunocytochemistry. Furthermore, the effects of oxidative stress on cell cycle arrest were also studied through flow cytometry.
Results: Our study demonstrated the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation as a result of H2O2 induction by arresting the cell cycle at the G2 phase.
Conclusion: The induction of oxidative stress could be a potential therapeutic approach for treating HCC in the future. GSTP-1 and PRX-2 can serve as substantial therapeutic targets for the treatment of HCC.
The use of fabrics for protection has existed since the beginning of human history. Fabrics provide protection against harmful agents, such as sunlight, rain, bacteria and viruses. However, an individual may contract diseases by using the fabrics instead of being protected due to chemicals used in production processes. Humans are exposed to hazardous chemicals, such as formaldehyde, used in fabrics through breathing, ingestion and dermal absorption that can cause adverse health effects.
Formaldehyde is a chemical used in several textile production processes, such as hardening of fibres and antimold finishing. However, it has varying effects on humans, such as irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, wheezing, chest pains and bronchitis. In the midst of COVID-19, individuals are using various fabrics for face mask production, which may be containing levels of formaldehyde that can negatively affect their health. With this in mind, it might be a good idea to wash your new clothes before putting them on.
Dr. Patience Danquah Monnie and colleagues, from University of Cape Coast, Ghana, have investigated formaldehyde levels in fabrics on the Ghanaian market to determine compliance to standards set by the Ghana Standards Authority (GSA). With the aid of experimental procedures, they selected thirty-two (32) different brands of fabrics for their investigation. Formaldehyde levels were determined using a spectrophotometer (DR6000). Data were analyzed using the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) for Windows version 22. Mean of the performance attributes and the formaldehyde levels of the sampled fabrics were determined before and after washing. Inferential statistics (Analysis of Variance and Paired Samples t-test) at 0.05 alpha levels were used to determine significant differences between and among the groups involved.
The researchers found that the fabric samples tested positive for formaldehyde before and after washing, with some exceeding the standard limits set by the GSA. Significant differences existed between and among the samples with regard to formaldehyde levels as well as weight and weave types of the samples and formaldehyde levels. Concluding the research findings, washing significantly reduced the formaldehyde levels in the fabrics. “Ghana standards authority needs to takes a further look at the fabrics on the local market to ensure manufacturers comply with set standards”, notes Dr. Monnie, adding that, “consumers are also advised to wash their clothes at least once before use to reduce the level of impact formaldehyde resin may have on them.” Dr. Monnie’s team has received support (Grant Identification: RSG/GRP/CES/2020/142) from the Directorate of Research Innovation and Consultancy of University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Their report has been published in Current Materials Science.
The scorpion toxins are the largest potassium channel-blocking, peptide family. The understanding of toxin binding interfaces is usually restricted to two classical binding interfaces: one is the toxin α-helix motif, and the other is the antiparallel β-sheet motif. In this review, such traditional knowledge has been updated by another two different binding interfaces: one is BmKTX toxin using the turn motif between the α-helix and antiparallel β-sheet domains as the binding interface, while the other is Tsκ toxin using the turn motif between the β-sheet in the N-terminal and α- helix domains as the binding interface. Their interaction analysis indicated that the scarce, negatively charged residues in the scorpion toxins played a critical role in orientating the toxin binding interface. In view of the toxin, being negatively charged amino acids as a “binding interface regulator”, the law of scorpion toxin-potassium channel interaction was proposed, that is, the polymorphism of negatively charged residue distribution determines the diversity of toxin binding interfaces. Such a law was used to develop the scorpion toxin-potassium channel recognition control technique. According to this technique, three Kv1.3 channel-targeted peptides, using BmKTX as the template, were designed with the distinct binding interfaces from that of BmKTX by modulating the distribution of toxin, negatively charged residues. In view of the potassium channel as the common target of different animal toxins, the proposed law was also shown to adjust the binding interfaces of other animal toxins. The toxin-potassium channel interaction law would strongly accelerate the research and development of different potassium channel-blocking animal toxins in the future.
Background: Carissa spinarum Linn has been used as a traditional medicine to treat various ailments, including snakebite. It is found in India, Ceylon and Thailand.Objective: The study was performed to determine the inhibiting potential of Carissa spinarum methanolic leaf extract on the pharmacological effects of Viper venom.
Methods: The dose-dependent enzymatic studies, pharmacological and in vivo studies were conducted using standard methods.
Results: It neutralized toxic enzymes in a dose-dependent manner with concentrations ranging from 53.3 –1190.4 μg/mL, inhibited lysis of fibrinogen at 1:8 (venom: extract, w/w), and increased the procoagulant activity and lecithin lysis at 1:25 (venom: extract, w/w). The extract neutralized the LD50 of venom in mice and embryos, reduced haemorrhage, myotoxicity and edema induced by the venom in mice.
Conclusion: The observed results confirm that the leaf extract possesses adequate phytochemicals that could neutralize the toxic properties of the venom.
Phospholipases A2 enzymes are found in many mammalian tissues and in animal venoms. Those present in bee venom (bvPLA2) and snake venom (svPLA2) have been studied more particularly for their biological activities of interest. Although they belong to the same family of secreted PLA2 (sPLA2), bvPLA2 and svPLA2 differ from a structural and functional point of view. In this review, we describe the morphological characteristics of these two enzymes and the structural determinants that govern their functions. After describing their cytotoxicity, we compared their biological activities, including antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-neurodegenerative, and anti-nociceptive effects. In addition, we highlighted their therapeutical applications and deduced bvPLA2 has better potential than svPLA2 in biotechnological and pharmaceutical innovations.
Background: Soft materials, including elastomers and gels, are pervasive in biological systems and technological applications. Despite the rapid developments of soft materials in the recent decades, it is still challenging to theoretically model and predict the large-deformation behaviors of soft structures.
Objective: The goal of this work is to give a general theoretical model to investigate the large deformation of a cantilevered soft beam under various loads. In particular, the applicability of the inextensibility assumption of the beam centerline is explored.
Methods: The governing equations of the soft beam system are derived according to the principle of minimum potential energy. In order to investigate the large deformation of the soft beam, the curvature of the beam centerline is exactly considered and the Yeoh model is utilized to account for the hyperelasticity of the soft beam. The derived ordinary differential equations are discretized by the Galerkin method and then solved by the iterative algorithm.
Results: Based on the proposed theoretical model, large bending deformations of the cantilevered soft beam are analyzed for various types of external loads, including uniformly distributed force, tipend concentrated force, and non-uniformly distributed force. Different values of the amplitude of the external loads are considered and fruitful deformed configurations are presented.
Conclusion: The proposed model is able to study the large deformation of the soft beam effectively. The inextensibility assumption of the beam centerline is applicable when the amplitude of the external load is relatively small. When the amplitude of the external load is sufficiently large, the extension of the centerline needs to be considered.
Background: Crop diseases are a primary hazard to nutrient safety, which proves to be a serious problem in many places in the world due to the unavailability of essential aid. Typically agriculturalists or specialists perceive the plants with a naked eye for detection and identification of an illness. Machine vision models, in specific Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have directed an impact in feature extraction to a greater extent. Since 2015, numerous solicitations for the automatic classification and recognition of crop illnesses have been established.Methods: In this paper, we proposed, analyzed, and assessed various state-of-the-art models proposed over a decade. These models are pre-trained with the finest parameters where we modeled a design-oriented method with numerous leaf-images and classified them into infection and healthy class for each type of leaf independently.
Results: Through our examination, we concluded that VGG models stand-alone with many cited prototypes and give on par results. As declared, these VGG models (VGG16 and VGG19) are utilized for feature extraction, and further, we augmented a set of dense layers and train them consequently for classification. The performances of various machine vision prototypes were pictorially perceived and their sophisticated architecture is not only capable of extracting detailed features but also repressed many loop-holes. The performance is assessed and computed for several types of leaf images and the accuracy scores attained were more than 97.5% for VGG16 and 96.72% for VGG19.
Conclusion: AUC-ROC curves were portrayed to illustrate its inspiration in defining an accurate classification where VGG16 and VGG19 have at least 96.6% and 95% area under the curve (AUC) which resembles their robustness.
Background: A Fuzzy Cubic Set (FCS) is composed of a Fuzzy Set (FS) (certain fuzzy numbers) and an Interval-Valued Fuzzy Set (IVFS) (uncertain fuzzy numbers) to describe the hybrid information of both. To enhance the credibility of both, they should be closely related to the measures/degrees of credibility owing to the vagueness and uncertainty of humans’ cognitions regarding the real world.Objective: This paper presents the notions of a Fuzzy Cubic Credibility Set (FCCS) and a Fuzzy Cubic Credibility Number (FCCN) as the new generalization of the FCS notion to enhance the credibility level of FCS by means of the credibility degrees of both FS and IVFS. Next, we define operations of FCCNs, an expected value of FCCN, and the FCCN Weighted Arithmetic Averaging (FCCNWAA) and FCCN Weighted Geometric Averaging (FCCNWGA) operators for Decision Making (DM) strategy.
Methods: A DM strategy using the FCCNWAA or FCCNWGA operator is proposed to solve multicriteria DM problems in the environment of FCCNs. Then, the proposed DM strategy is applied to a DM example of slope design schemes for an open-pit mine in the environment of FCCNs to reflect the feasibility of the proposed DM strategy.
Result: By comparison with the fuzzy cubic DM strategy, the DM results with and without the degrees of credibility, can impact on the ranking of alternatives in the DM example to reflect the effectiveness of the proposed DM strategy.
Conclusion: However, the highlighting advantage of this study is that the proposed DM strategy not only indicates the degrees of credibility regarding the assessed values of FCNs in the DM process but also enhances the DM reliability in the environment of FCCNs. Hence, the proposed DM strategy is superior to the fuzzy cubic DM strategy in the environment of FCCNs.