Most cited: Nutraceuticals for Promoting Longevity

Author(s):Ivan PavlovićSoliman KhatebIrina Milisav and Jamal Mahajna*

Objective: To summarize the main findings on nutraceuticals that slow aging processes by delaying and even preventing the development of multiple chronic diseases and improve productivity and quality of life in the elderly.

Methods: Literature search of the relevant papers known to the authors was conducted.

Results: The most robust environmental manipulation for extending lifespan is caloric restriction without malnutrition. Some nutraceuticals can mimic caloric restriction effects. This review will focus on the nutraceuticals that impact insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling and sirtuin activity in mediating longevity and healthspan.

Conclusion: Aging is considered to be synonymous with the appearance of major diseases and an overall decline in physical and mental performance. Caloric restriction is well established as a strategy to extend lifespan without malnutrition. A variety of nutraceuticals were reported to mimic the effect of caloric restriction by modulating the activity of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling and sirtuin activity and consequently promote longevity and healthspan.

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Most cited: The Mediterranean Diets’ Effect on Gut Microbial Composition in Comparison with the Western Diet: A Literature Review

Author(s):Ioannis-Nektarios ElmaliklisSpyridon Konteles and Antonios E. Koutelidakis*

Background: In recent years, the scientific interest about the possible role of dietary attitudes on gut microbiota modulation has been increasing.

Objective: The present literature review aimed to analyze the effect of Mediterranean diet adoption on gut microbial composition, in comparison with the Western diet.

Methods: From an initial number of 38, 21 recent studies were selected using comprehensive scientific databases and relative keywords, such as microbial composition, dietary attitudes, and beneficial effects. The selected studies were recently published based on animal models, human interventional trials, metanalyses and gut microbiome analysis, such as metagenomics.

Results: According to the basic findings of the present review study, Mediterranean diet adherence leads to a gut microbial richness and richer diversity as well as a higher abundance of genera Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium species, that stimulate the production of total short-chain fatty acids. This diet also leads to a lower Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio due to the increase of Bacteroidetes and decrease of Firmicutes, accompanied by a decrease of circulating Trimethylamine N oxide levels and a reduction in abundance of Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae, Proteobacteria and Coprococcus, in comparison to the Western diet.

Conclusion: Further understanding of the multifactorial effect of both Mediterranean and Western diet on gut microbiota could allow the establishment of nutritional educational programs and nutritional policies with aim to improve human health by modulating gut microbial composition.

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Most cited: Functional Food with Some Health Benefits, So Called Superfood: A Review

Author(s):Ena Gupta and Pragya Mishra*

The possible beneficial properties of functional foods are due to their content in bioactive ingredients, with specific biological properties. A number of processed functional foods are available in the market – probiotic yogurt, calcium and ω-3 fatty acids enriched orange juice and milk. Simultaneously, new research studies confer potential health benefits of various conventional foods (salmon, berries, green tea, vegetables, fruits, nuts, cereals and breads, etc.) termed as “superfood” which is a marketing term and there is no established medical definition. Following suitable dietary patterns, superfood reduces the risk of degenerative diseases by promoting physical and emotional health. Scientific evidences suggest that superfoods are a dense source of antioxidants, minerals, vitamins and other nutrients. There is insufficient research on the exact explanation of the term ‘superfood’and its health claims by different companies without any legislation. This buzz word has created confusion among consumers, that how much and what quantity should make a food superfood, as no single food may be as nutritious to be stated as a superfood. This article introduces further investigation on superfood which was categorized on the basis of their major constituents and potential health benefits. Further, there is a need for more reviews, researches, clinical trials and human case studies to investigate or test superfood.

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Open access: Biomedical Perspectives of Acute and Chronic Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of COVID-19

Author(s): George B. Stefano*Pascal BüttikerSimon WeissenbergerRadek PtacekFuzhou WangTobias EschThomas V. BilfingerJiri Raboch and Richard M. Kream

The incidence of infections from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has dramatically escalated following the initial outbreak in China, in late 2019, resulting in a global pandemic with millions of deaths. Although the majority of infected patients survive, and the rapid advent and deployment of vaccines have afforded increased immunity against SARS-CoV-2, long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection have become increasingly recognized. These include, but are not limited to, chronic pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disorders, and proinflammatory-associated neurological dysfunction that may lead to psychological and neurocognitive impairment. A major component of cognitive dysfunction is operationally categorized as “brain fog” which comprises difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness, confusion, depression, and fatigue. Multiple parameters associated with long-term neuropsychiatric sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been detailed in clinical studies. Empirically elucidated mechanisms associated with the neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are by nature complex, but broad-based working models have focused on mitochondrial dysregulation, leading to systemic reductions of metabolic activity and cellular bioenergetics within the CNS structures. Multiple factors underlying the expression of brain fog may facilitate future pathogenic insults, leading to repetitive cycles of viral and bacterial propagation. Interestingly, diverse neurocognitive sequelae associated with COVID-19 are not dissimilar from those observed in other historical pandemics, thereby providing a broad and integrative perspective on potential common mechanisms of CNS dysfunction subsequent to viral infection. Poor mental health status may be reciprocally linked to compromised immune processes and enhanced susceptibility to infection by diverse pathogens. By extrapolation, we contend that COVID-19 may potentiate the severity of neurological/neurocognitive deficits in patients afflicted by well-studied neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Accordingly, the prevention, diagnosis, and management of sustained neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are pivotal health care directives and provide a compelling rationale for careful monitoring of infected patients, as early mitigation efforts may reduce short- and long-term complications.

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Most cited article: Factors Associated with Primary Hypertension in Pediatric Patients: An Up-to-Date

Author(s):Isabella Barreto S. MachadoMatheus Rampinelli TofanelliAriadna A. Saldanha da Silva and Ana Cristina Simões e Silva*

Background: Arterial hypertension in children is considered a common alteration nowadays, mainly because obesity is a growing worldwide problem closely related to increased blood pressure. Childhood hypertension can be classified as primary or secondary, depending on the etiology. Primary or essential hypertension still has its pathophysiology not fully elucidated, and there is no consensus in the literature on most underlying mechanisms. In this review, genetic and environmental factors, including sodium and potassium intake, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, family structure, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, prematurity and low birth weight, prenatal and postnatal exposures are highlighted.

Objective: The present study aimed to perform an update on primary hypertension in childhood, providing clinicians and researchers an overview of the current state of the literature regarding the influence of genetic and environmental factors.

Methods: This integrative review searched for articles on genetic and environmental factors related to primary hypertension in pediatric patients. The databases evaluated were PubMed and Scopus.

Results: The studies have provided insights regarding many genetic and environmental factors, in addition to their association with the pathophysiology of primary hypertension in childhood. Findings corroborated the idea that primary hypertension is a multifactorial disease. Further studies in the pediatric population are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

Conclusion: The study of primary hypertension in pediatrics has utmost importance for the adoption of preventive measures and the development of more efficient treatments, therefore reducing childhood morbidity and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and other health consequences later in life.

Most cited article: Pediatrics for Disability: A Comprehensive Approach to Children with Syndromic Psychomotor Delay

Author(s): Luigi Tarani*Debora RasioFrancesca TaraniGiovanni ParlapianoDiletta ValentiniKatarzyna Anna DylagAlberto SpaliceRoberto Paparella and Marco Fiore*

Intellectual disability is the impairment of cognitive, linguistic, motor and social skills that occurs in the pediatric age and is also described by the term “mental retardation”. Intellectual disability occurs in 3-28 % of the general population due to a genetic cause, including chromosome aberrations. Among people with intellectual disabilities, the cause of the disability was identified as a single gene disorder in up to 12 %, multifactorial disorders in up to 4 %, and genetic disorders in up to 8.5 %. Children affected by a malformation syndrome associated with mental retardation or intellectual disability represent a care challenge for the pediatrician. A multidisciplinary team is essential to manage the patient, thereby controlling the complications of the syndrome and promoting the correct psychophysical development. This requires continuous follow-up of these children by the pediatrician, which is essential for both the clinical management of the syndrome and facilitating the social integration of these children.

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Most cited article: Sweet’s Syndrome: An Update

Author(s):Amit Agrawal*Salahaldin Hafud ArifKrithika Kumarasan and Dalwinder Janjua


Sweet’s syndrome is a serious dermatological disorder characterized by a rapid onset of tender plaques or nodules, fever, joint pain, headache, and oral and genital lesions. According to the clinical features and underlying causes, Sweet’s syndrome is divided into three categories, i.e., classical (or idiopathic), malignancy-associated Sweet’s syndrome, and drug-induced Sweet’s syndrome. It is multifactorial in etiology, and the exact cause is still undetermined. The diagnosis can be confirmed by the routine histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsy from the lesions. The first-line treatment options are topical and systemic steroids. Multiple databases, like Medline/PubMed, Scopus, and Google, were used to identify resources for this literature review. The relevant information was collected from various case reports, case series, reviews, meta-analyses, and large clinical trials reporting clinical description, etiology, diagnosis, and management of Sweet’s syndrome. This narrative review aimed to discuss recent understandings related to Sweet’s syndrome, both in terms of clinical presentation and management approach.

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The TP53 Gene and COVID-19 Virus: A Correlation Analysis

Author(s):C. Lakshmi Anand* and P.K. Krishnan Namboori

Aim: This study aimed to discover the most effective anti-cancer medicine for cancer patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Background: The correlation between TP53 and SARS-CoV-2 was examined using biomolecular networking analysis.

Objective: Cancer patients with TP53 gene mutations are more likely to be infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus since it is the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in human cancer. The main goal of this study is to discover the most effective and efficient anti-cancer therapy for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Materials and Methods: Topp gene analysis was used to prioritize candidate genes based on molecular function, biological process, and pathway analysis. Biomolecular networking was carried out using Cytoscape 2.8.2. The protein-protein interaction network was used to identify the functionally associated proteins. The protein-drug interaction network was used to observe the molecular therapeutic efficiency of drugs. The network was further analyzed using CytoHubba to find the hub nodes. The molecular docking was used to study the proteinligand interaction, and the protein-ligand complex was further evaluated through molecular dynamic simulation to determine its stability.

Results: Functionally relevant genes were prioritized through Toppgene analysis. Using Cytohabba, it was found that the genes UBE2N, BRCA1, BARD1, TP53, and DPP4 had a high degree and centrality score. The drugs 5-fluorouracil, Methotrexate, Temozolomide, Favipiravir, and Levofloxacin have a substantial association with the hub protein, according to protein-drug interaction analysis. Finally, a docking study revealed that 5-fluorouracil has the highest connection value and stability compared to Methotrexate, Favipiravir, and Levofloxacin.

Conclusion: The biomolecular networking study was used to discover the link between TP53 and SARS-CoV-2, and it was found that 5-fluorouracil had a higher affinity for binding to TP53 and its related genes, such as UBE2N, BRCA1, RARD1, and SARS-CoV-2 specific DPP4. For cancer patients with TP53 gene mutations and Covid-19 infection, this treatment is determined to be the most effective.

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Most cited article: The Effect of Skin-to-Skin Contact Between Father and Baby on Paternal Attachment

Author(s): Mine Erdoğan YilmazOznur Korukcu* and Kamile Kabukcuoglu

Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of skin-to-skin contact between father and baby within the first three hours following childbirth on the level of paternal attachment.

Methods: Data were collected from 69 fathers between May-July 2018 with paternal infant attachment scale in Antalya Medical Park Hospital in Turkey in this quasi-experimental study.

Results: Total score of the fathers who established skin-to-skin contact with the babies was 82.34±7.76, and that of the control group was 66.07±18.2 (p<0.05). Moreover, the paternalinfant attachment level of the fathers in the study group who became fathers for the first time was higher than that of the control group.

Conclusion: The skin-to-skin contact between father and baby following childbirth was an effective practice in the transition to fatherhood.

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Most cited: Comorbidity and Association of Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, Anxiety, and Somatic Complaints in COVID-19 Georgian Patients at the Beginning of Pandemic

Author(s):Giorgi Sikharulidze*Levan RatianiMariam SordiaElene SikharulidzeTinatin KhutsishviliKhatuna Lejava and Eric Vermetten

Background: The global pandemic which the world has been facing for the past two years has demonstrated the need to study the effects of this virus on mental health. Various studies showed that COVID-19 could be a threat to people’s mental health and physical health, yet the findings are still very limited. The purpose of the study was to fill an existing gap in the corresponding literature by analyzing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, somatic complaints, depression, and anxiety in COVID-19 patients and studying their comorbidity to determine the impact of the virus on the patients’ mental well-being.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 took part in the study one month after their discharge from the hospital, accounting for 10% of all COVID-19 patients across Georgia during the research. PTSD Checklist (PCL-5) was used. Depression, somatic symptoms, and anxiety were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ).

Results: The results have shown that COVID-19, as a traumatic event, presents an association with PTSD, depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. A high prevalence of depression (38,6%), anxiety (34,9%), and somatic symptoms (47%) was displayed. The overall indirect effect of PTSD on somatic symptoms was significant through depression and anxiety: 0.16, 95% CI [0.08, 0.26]. According to the report, the indirect effect of PTSD on somatic symptoms of depression was 0.12, 95% CI [0.05, 0.20].

Conclusion: The study presents important findings on the relations between COVID-19 and patients mental health. Somatic complaints, depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms were prevalent in participants even after a month since they had COVID-19. Correlations between somatic complaints, anxiety, depression, and PTSD were also demonstrated. Even though there are various limitations to this study, how COVID-19 could affect mental health warrants further, more detailed research, which is necessary.

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