Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Analysis
Author(s): Merve Tumur, Gulsah Saydan Kanberoglu, Fatih Coldur*.
Background: Cysteamine is used as an orphan drug in the treatment of cystinosis to prevent long-term cystine accumulation in lysosomes. Dosing in cysteamine treatment is extremely important and overdose may cause some side effects. Up to now, various analytical methods have been used for cysteamine determination. Many of these methods require sophisticated instruments, expert operators, time-consuming measurement procedures and manipulation steps, expensive supplies and long analysis time.
Aims and Objective: The present study deals with the development of a potentiometric PVC-membrane cysteamine-selective electrode based on an ion-pair of cysteamine and its application in a pharmaceutical formulation.
Methods: Cysteamine (Cys)-Phosphomolybdate (PM) ion-pair was synthesized by mixing the equal volumes of 10-2 M Cysteamine HCl and sodium phosphomolybdate aqueous solutions. The obtained precipitate was used as ionophore in the structure of PVC-membrane.
Results and Discussion: The electrode exhibited a linear response in the concentration range of 1.0×10- 1-1.0×10-5 M cysteamine with a slope of 51,7 mV per decade and detection limit of 1.0×10-5 M. The potentiometric response of the electrode was very rapid (5 s), adequately repeatable, stable and selective. pH working range and life-time of the electrode were also determined as 3.0-7.0 and 25 days, respectively.
Conclusion: A PVC-membrane cysteamine selective electrode was easily prepared. Cysteamine determination in a pharmaceutical formulation was performed. Analysis results indicated that it can be successfully used in drug quality control laboratories for routine analysis of cysteamine in pharmaceutical preparations alternative to more sophisticated, expensive and time-consuming analytical methods. To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/166392/article
Author(s): Nikolay V. Tkachenko*, Konstantin P. Bryliakov*.
Optically pure 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) and its derivatives are among the most widely used chiral ligands and auxiliaries for asymmetric synthesis. These molecules also occur as scaffolds for various biologically active compounds. Direct oxidative coupling of 2-naphthols in the presence of chiral catalysts provides a powerful strategy for the synthesis of optically pure 1,1′-bi-2-naphthols (BINOLS). In 1978, Wynberg with co-workers discovered that a copper salt with chiral auxiliary mediates the oxidative coupling of 2-naphthols, which can be taken as the starting point for further progress in this area. Over the last decades, a number of efficient and stereoselective catalyst systems have been developed. This mini-review surveys the aerobic asymmetric oxidative coupling of 2-naphthols catalyzed by transition metal complexes reported since 1995. To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/161387/article
HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, has been the deadliest virus discovered in the last century. The virus is feared for its ability to affect the immune system of humans and render them vulnerable to catch any other virus, bacteria or disease that may be around. What’s worse is the contagious nature of HIV, as it can easily transmit through blood diffusion, sexual transmission, cuts and wounds, and also from mothers to babies. The virus has been extremely resistant to medicines and treatments so far, making it a veteran killer of humans.
There has been some recent advancement in administering drugs to HIV patients which have proven promising in keeping the virus from multiplying. Applauding this progress, the researchers have also apprehended that the virus is so resilient that it quickly alters itself through mutation to keep its onslaught going. The drugs can only hold the virus back temporarily and soon they lose their utility.
This has led the researchers to develop computational methods to track the changes occurring in HIV and realize when the right time to change the course of treatment comes. The method can also make the changes predictable and so the scientists will be able to proactively deal with the danger.
The research paper, Current Approaches in Computational Drug Resistance Prediction in HIV, published in Current HIV Research journal presents the study in detail.
Author(s): Nils Albiin
Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH or adenoma, can be distinguished from malignant lesions. In a non-cirrhotic liver, the most common malignant lesions are metastases which may be hypovascular or hypervascular. In the cirrhotic liver hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, is of considerable importance. Besides, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other less common malignancies has to be assessed. In this review, the techniques and typical MRI features are presented as well as the new algorithm issued by American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases (AASLD).
Read more here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-medical-imaging-reviews/volume/8/issue/2/page/107/
Author(s): R. S. Mann and P E Kaufman
Abstract: Natural chemicals have considerable potential for vector management because these chemicals are safer than conventional insecticides on account of their rapid environmental biodegradation and low toxicity to natural enemies, humans and other mammals and they suffer less from problems of registration difficulties. However, isolation and chemical characterization of the active compounds from plants with strong biological activities can be a tedious process compared to synthesizing new synthetic compounds because natural compounds are generally isolated in small amounts. In addition, the purity of natural products is highly variable and is dependent upon the extraction method, plant part, plant age, geographic origin and location, climate and the overall growth and health of the plant from which the chemical is extracted. Furthermore, the research and development of natural pesticides against insect vectors is constrained because of the perceived lack of economic return to the manufacturers on investment in insect vector control and also due to the difficulties in registration. Despite these difficulties, research in plant-derived pesticides has increased considerably. In this paper we provide an overview of the compounds isolated from plants that have been evaluated for control of insect vectors of human and animal pathogens.
Read more here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/mini-reviews-in-organic-chemistry/volume/9/issue/2/page/185/
Author(s): Aurelio Leone and Linda Landini
Abstract: Both conduit and resistance arterial vessels may show vascular morphological and functional alterations due to cigarette smoking. Pathological lesions involve the arterial wall or intravascular lumen with, primarily, narrowing and thrombo-embolic events as an effect of endothelial and blood cell changes related to smoking. Functional disorders are the result of a wide spectrum of biochemical, physiological and metabolic factors. While conduit vessel alterations have been widely investigated, little is known about the changes induced by smoking on the microcirculation. It would seem that the endothelium, platelet aggregation and adhesiveness, nervous system and metabolic changes play a role in damaging resistance arteries and, then, the microcirculation. The result of these effects changes the blood flow and perfusion particularly to the heart, brain and kidney. Alterations of the microcirculation can cause severe and widespread damage because, in addition to the complications of the atherosclerotic lesion which characterizes large arteries, there is a failure of body organs linked to the degree of microvascular damage. Moreover, it seems that 2 major compounds of cigarette smoke are capable of determining vascular damage; initially, nicotine acts preferably on large arteries and carbon monoxide on small arteries, although both compounds damage the vascular system.
Find out more here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-vascular-pharmacology/volume/11/issue/4/page/524/
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology-Asia
Author(s): Sunandan Baruah, Samir K. Pal and Joydeep Dutta
Abstract: Environmental pollution and industrialization on a global scale have drawn attention to the vital need for developing new hygienically friendly purification technologies. Existing wastewater treatment technologies demand high capital investment and operation & maintenance cost, and large area. Cost-effective treatment of pollutants requires the transformation of hazardous substances into benign forms and the subsequent development of effective risk management strategies from harmful effects of pollutants that are highly toxic, persistent, and difficult to treat. Application of nanotechnology that results in improved water treatment options might include removal of the finest contaminants from water (< 300 nm) and “smart materials” or “reactive surface coatings” with engineered specificity to a certain pollutant that destroy, transform or immobilize toxic compounds.
Read more here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/nanoscience-and-nanotechnology-asia/volume/2/issue/2/page/90/
Journal: Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Author(s): Valentina Donzella and Stefano Faralli
Abstract: This review paper reports on recent patents regarding integrated optical active devices, namely amplifiers and lasers based on silicon. It is crucial to point out a standard and unique platform for integrating optic and electronic components together. Nevertheless, integrated optics does not have its standard platform and it is still struggling to find the most competitive way for achieving light generation and amplification onto a single silicon chip. Different solutions have been proposed so far, and the more promising are hybrid integration and silicon photonics. Even if the first approach allowed the actual fabrication of integrated optical chips, it cannot guarantee total compatibility with current electronic fabrication methods, thus, it is expensive for large-scale production. On the other hand, silicon photonics suffers from the unsuitability of bulk silicon as emitting material, and as a consequence, several innovative solutions have been patented to achieve efficient light emission from silicon-based materials. To assure low-cost those solutions should be CMOS compatible. Here we focused on the patents that have represented a technological breakthrough or a milestone for hybrid integration or silicon photonics, highlighting advantages but also issues that have still to be addressed.
For more details: http://benthamscience.com/journals/recent-advances-in-electrical-and-electronic-engineering/volume/5/issue/2/page/120/