Podcast: Basic Guidelines for Bacteriophage Isolation and Characterization

Author(s): Safia Samir*

Abstract:

The world is on the cusp of a post-antibiotic period. A century ago, before the advent of antibiotics, bacteriophage therapy was the treatment of choice for bacterial infections. Although bacteriophages have yet to be approved as a treatment in Western medicine, researchers and clinicians have begun to anticipate phage therapy. Bacteriophages are viruses that depend on bacterial cell metabolism to multiply. They offer a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics and an excellent antibacterial option for combating multidrug resistance in bacteria. However, not every phage is suitable for phage therapy. In particular, prophages should not be used because they can lysogenize host cells instead of lysing them. To offer adequate therapeutic options for patients suffering from various infectious diseases, a wide selection of different phages is needed. While there is no evidence of direct toxicity induced by phage particles, it is crucial to study mammalian cell–phage interactions. This requires phage preparations to be free of bacterial cells, toxins and other compounds to avoid skewing host responses. Negative staining of purified viruses and electron microscopy remain the gold standard in the identification of bacteriophages. Interestingly, genomics has greatly changed our understanding of phage biology. Bacteriophage genome sequencing is essential to obtain a complete understanding of the bacteriophages’ biology and to obtain confirmation of their lifestyle. Full genetic sequencing of bacteriophage will enable a better understanding of the phage-encoded proteins and biomolecules (especially phage lytic enzymes) involved in the process of bacterial cell lysis and death. Mass spectrometry can be used for the identification of phage structural proteins. The use of lytic phages as biocontrol agents requires the most appropriate and standard methods to ensure application safety. This review pursues recent research and methods in molecular biology for the isolation and characterization of phages to facilitate follow-up and implementation of work for other researchers. Patents related to this topic have been mentioned in the text.

Journal link: http://bit.ly/3GraUct

Podcast: http://bit.ly/3k2E0qY

Podcast: Contribution of Pharmaceutical Care to Person-centered Health Care and the Safety of Pharmacotherapy for Hospitalized Older Individuals in Brazil: An Investigative Single-arm Intervention Trial

Author(s): Alan Maicon de Oliveira*Fabiana Rossi VaralloJoão Paulo Vilela RodriguesGuilherme José AguilarNereida Kilza da Costa Lima and Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira

Background: Adverse drug events (ADE) and medication errors (ME) provide large numbers of victims. Older people are more susceptible to these events, due to the continuing search for several chronic degenerative disease treatments. The Third Global Patient Safety Challenge announced the objective of reducing unnecessary polypharmacy, encouraging deprescription, and aiming to ensure the prescription of medications in an appropriate manner, based on the best evidence and taking into account the individual factors of people.

Objective: To evaluate whether Pharmaceutical Care (PC), when inserted in a geriatric ward and the context of person-centered health care, cooperates with the safety of pharmacotherapy in older individuals in Brazil.

Methods: This is an investigative, single-arm, preliminary study. Inclusion criteria: individuals aged ≥60 years and admitted to the geriatric ward between August 2019 to January 2020. The PC (with the practice of pharmacotherapeutic follow-up, medication reconciliation, and pharmacotherapy review) was made available to identify ADE and ME, as well as the associated factors and clinical outcomes, were analyzed.

Results: 60 participants were included. It was found that, on hospital admission, 93.3% of them were polymedicated and 86.7% had a history of using potentially inappropriate medications (PIM). ADE and ME were detected in 43 individuals (71.7%) and, in total, 115 incidents were identified, with drugs that act on the nervous system associated with them (31.9%). Acceptance of the PC’s recommendations reached the rate of 85.2%. Polypharmacy (p=0.03) and the presence of multiple diseases (p=0.03) had an effect on the presentation of ADE and ME. The number of medications in use decreased in the comparison between admission and hospital discharge (p<0.0001).

Conclusion: This investigative study indicated that ADE and ME are linked to the polypharmacy in use at the beginning of hospitalization. On the other hand, we showed that the PC (inserted in the multidisciplinary team) contributed to the deprescribing of medications at hospital discharge. Therefore, the PC can provide improvements in this scenario.

Trial Registration: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (registration number: RBR-34f2px4).

Watch the podcast here: http://bit.ly/3GfRuXH
Read the full article: http://bit.ly/3VRB51K

A Podcast by Sari Goldstein Ferber: When the Mind Comes to Live Inside the Body: The Ontogeny of the Perceptual Control Clock

Author(s):Sari Goldstein Ferber*Ronny Geva and Aron Weller

Abstract

In this editorial, we discuss the neurobiological processes underlying the early emergence of awareness that we term the “when” and “how” the mind comes to live inside the body. We describe an accumulative developmental process starting during embryonic life and continuing to fetal and postnatal development, of coupling of heart rate, body movements, and sleep states on the behavioral level with underlying mechanisms on the structural, functional, cellular, and molecular levels. A developmental perspective is proposed based on Perceptual Control Theory (PCT). This includes a developing sequence of modules starting from early sensing of neural intensities to early manifestation of human mindful capacities. We also address pharmacological treatments administered to preterm infants, which may interfere with this development, and highlight the need to consider this potential “side effect” of current pharmaceuticals when developing novel pharmacogenomic treatments.

View the Podcast here: https://bit.ly/3Ui1lBG

Read the article: https://bit.ly/3h4P2um

Podcast – Extraction Methods for Obtaining Natural Blue Colorants

Author(s): Juliana M. Prado*, Priscilla C. Veggi, Grazielle Náthia-Neves and M. Angela A. Meireles

Podcast By : Dr. Juliana M. Prado

Website: https://eurekaselect.net/article/94578

Background: Blue is a color not often present in food. Even so, it is especially attractive to children. Today, most blue coloring agents used by the food industry are synthetic. With increasing health issues concern by the scientific community and the general population, there is a trend to look for natural alternatives to most synthetic products. There only exist few natural blue colorants, which are presented in a literature survey, along with the methods currently used for their recovery from natural sources. The best extraction methods and process parameters for the extraction of blue anthocyanins, iridoids and phycocyanin are discussed.

Methods: A literature survey was conducted to detect the main sources of blue colorants found in nature. The focus was on the extraction methods used to recover such molecules, with the objective of finding efficient and environmentally safe techniques for application at industrial level, and, thus, allowing the production of natural blue colorants at scale high enough for food industry consumption.

Results: The main natural blue colorants found in literature are anthocyanins, phycocyanin, and genipin. While anthocyanins can be recovered from a variety of plants, the source of phycocyanin are algae, and genipin can be obtained specifically from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Genipa americana L. Several extraction techniques have been applied to recover blue colorants from such sources, from classical methods using organic solvents, to more sophisticated technologies as ultrasoundassisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, high-pressure extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction.

Conclusion: There is great potential for anthocyanins, phycocyanin and genipin use as natural food additives with health benefits, besides imparting color. However, the technologies for the colorants recovery and application are not mature enough. Therefore, this area is still developing, and it is necessary to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed extraction processes, along with the safety and acceptance of colored food using these additives. Read out more at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B7_Xnl4TNDo&feature=youtu.be

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Podcast – Importance of Pharmacist in Oxaliplatin Hepatotoxicity Associated with Inadequate Nutritional Diet

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Author(s): Iago D.L. Cavalcanti*, Diogo T. Costa, Andreza T. de Aguiar Silva, Adrya L. Peres, Cynthia G. de Oliveira Coimbra.

Abstract:

A 40 years old male with colorectal cancer, with an unbalanced hypercaloric diet, attempted, on his own initiative, to gain weight, without nutritional follow-up, during chemotherapy treatment with oxaliplatin protocols, without pharmaceutical guidance. When initiating the new protocol, with oxaliplatin/irinotecan combination therapy, he presented symptomatology suggestive of hepatic injury during the administration of oxaliplatin. When performing a Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the total abdomen, hepatic nodules were identified indicating lesions resulting from the chemotherapy treatment, and blood tests indicated Aspartate aminotransferase levels in 55 U/L and Alanine aminotransferase in 68 U/L. The patient underwent partial hepatectomy for the removal of the nodules and was currently in clinical care, presenting a frame stable but non-therapeutic possibility. This case highlights the importance of interaction among health professionals, reinforcing the need for multiprofessional approaches to better patient response to antineoplastic treatment. Read out more: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bhLWxweew54&feature=youtu.be

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Podcast – The Ability of Blood Plasma to Inhibit Catalase in the Presence of Chloride

Journal Name: Current Enzyme Inhibition

Author(s): Vladimir Titov*, Anatoly Osipov, Anatoly Vanin.

Abstract:

Aims: To find out the origin of so-called nitrite – like substance (NLS) that appears in the blood plasma in patients with inflammatory diseases and the mechanism of its occurrence. To justify the possibility of registering its appearance in the blood as a highly sensitive indicator of leukocyte activation.

Background: The need for a simple, sensitive and specific method of early diagnosis of inflammation, the key stage of which is the activation of white blood cells.

Objective: To find out the origin of so-called nitrite – like substance (NLS) that appears in the blood plasma in patients with inflammatory diseases before the onset of clinical signs. This substance is able to inhibit catalase in the presence of chloride which is typical for nitrite and nitrosoamines. Methods: The catalase activity was determined by the calorimetric method based on the control of the kinetics of heat production accompanying hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

Results: Blood plasma contains deposited nitric oxide included in various nitrosyl iron complexes. These complexes effectively interact with the superoxide produced by activated leukocytes. This interaction produces a number of substances that have the ability to inhibit catalase in the presence of chloride. These substances retain the ability to inhibit in the system: hemoglobin-iron chelator, or hemoglobin-mercury salt. Such properties are characteristic of nitrite and nitrosoamines. Normally, these substances are present in plasma in trace amounts. 700 activated cells per microliter (10 times less than normal in human blood) are enough to transform about 30% nitrosyl iron complexes contained in plasma into NLS.

Conclusion: The appearance of NLS is a very sensitive indicator of leukocyte activation. Read out more: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cWvKV1736HM&feature=youtu.be

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Podcast – The Molecular Diversity Scope of Urazole in the Synthesis of Organic Compounds

Journal Name: Current Organic Synthesis

Author(s): Ghodsi M. Ziarani*, Fatemeh Mohajer, Razieh Moradi, Parisa Mofatehnia.

Podcast By: Fatemeh Mohajer

Abstract:

Background: As a matter of fact, nitrogen as a hetero atom among other atoms has had an important role in active biological compounds. Since heterocyclic molecules with nitrogen are highly demanded due to biological properties, 4-phenylurazole as a compound containing nitrogen might be important in the multicomponent reaction used in agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Considering the case of fused derivatives “pyrazolourazoles” which are highly applicable because of their application for analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities as HSP-72 induction inhibitors (I and III) and novel microtubule assembly inhibitors. It should be mentioned that spiro-pyrazole also has biological activities like cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antifungal, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiotonic activities.

Objective: Urazole has been used in many heterocyclic compounds which are valuable in organic syntheses. This review disclosed the advances in the use of urazole as the starting material in the synthesis of various biologically active molecules from 2006 to 2019.

Conclusion: Compounds of urazole (1,2,4-triazolidine-3,5-dione) are the most important molecules which are highly active from the biological perspective in the pharmaceuticals as well as polymers. In summary, many protocols for preparations of the urazole derivatives from various substrates in multi-component reactions have been reported from different aromatic and aliphatic groups which have had carbonyl groups in their structures. It is noted that several catalysts have been synthesized to afford applicable molecules with urazole scaffolds. In some papers, being environmentally friendly, short time reactions and high yields are highlighted in the protocols. There is a room to synthesize new catalysts and perform new reactions by manipulating urazole to produce biologically active compounds, even producing chiral urazole component as many groups of chiral urazole compounds are important from biological perspective. Read out more: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyH12zDLr8M&feature=youtu.be

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Podcast – Curcumin Nanoemulsions Stabilized with Modified Phosphatidylcholine on Skin Carcinogenesis Protocol

Journal Name: Current Drug Metabolism

Author(s): Beatriz Agame-Lagunes, Monserrat Alegria-Rivadeneyra, Rodolfo Quintana-Castro, Cristobal Torres-Palacios, Peter Grube-Pagola, Cynthia Cano-Sarmiento, Rebeca Garcia-Varela, Alfonso Alexander-Aguilera, Hugo Sergio García*.

Background: Cancer is one of the main causes of death by disease; several alternative treatments have been developed to counteract this condition. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, it has low water solubility and poor intestinal absorption. Carrier systems, such as nanoemulsions, can increase the bioavailability of lipophilic bioactive compounds.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of curcumin nanoemulsions prepared with lecithin modified with medium-chain fatty acids as an emulsifier, on the expression of the Cdk4, Ccne2, Casp8 and Cldn4 genes involved in the carcinogenesis process in K14E6 transgenic mice.

Methods: The emulsifier was prepared by interesterification of medium-chain fatty acids, pure lecithin, and immobilized phospholipase-1 on Duolite A568. An Ultraturrax homogenizer and a Branson Ultrasonic processor were used for the preparation of nano-emulsions, and a Zetasizer evaluated the particle size. qRT-PCR analysis was performed to quantify the cancer-related genes expressed in the K14E6 mice. The development and evolution of skin carcinogenesis were assessed through histological analysis to compare cell morphology.

Results: Ca 59% of the MCFA were incorporated via esterification into the PC within 12 hours of the reaction. An emulsifier yield used to formulate the NE of 86% was achieved. Nanoemulsions with a particle size of 44 nm were obtained. The curcumin nano-emulsion group had a 91.81% decrease in the tumorigenesis index and a reduction in tumor area of 89.95% compared to the sick group. Histological analysis showed that the group administered with free curcumin developed a microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma, as opposed to the group with nanoemulsion which presented only a slight inflammation. In gene expression, only a significant difference in Cdk4 was observed in the nanoemulsion group. Read out morehttps://www.eurekaselect.com/node/181485/article/effect-of-curcumin-nanoemulsions-stabilized-with-modified-phosphatidylcholine-on-skin-carcinogenesis-in-transgenic-mice-k14e6

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Podcast – Current Strategies and Approaches in Combating SARS-CoV-2 Virus that Causes COVID-19

Journal Name: Letters in Drug Design & Discovery

Podcast by: Dr. D. Sivaraman

Author(s): D. Sivaraman*, P. S. Pradeep, S. Sundar Manoharan, C. Ramachandra Bhat, K. V. Leela, V. Venugopal.

The pandemic spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19 calls for global health emergency with wide prevalence across 94 countries, and around 3073 deaths reported in china on 7th March 2020 which created red alert zone in the country. It was further noticed other than China, countries like the republic of Korea ranked first with 6767 cases, Italy with 4747 and Iran with 3513 cases. The spread of COVID-19 made a historical transition between December 2019 to March 2020 by extending the paradigm to a newer territory every day with the highest predicted reproductive number <2. Hence, while combating the epidemic spread, there are spectra of strategies that require crucial validation, some of which include drug repurposing, enzyme inhibition, target drug delivery etc. Among these, the category of drugs called enzyme inhibitors has a unique opportunity in the process of new drug discovery as these enzymes possess structural versatility starting from the host viral interface and up to the release of a new virus. Drugs entrapped within liposomes are highly effective against intracellular microorganisms as per published observations. Regulatory authorities like World Health Organization (WHO) and Centre for disease control and prevention (CDC) strongly recommend the need for the PPE’s like N95 respirator to avoid person to person contact. In this context, Electrospun Nanofiber Technology (ENT) offers ultrathin fibres (20-200 nm) with close proximity of 99.97% of high efficient air filtration. Fabrication of ultrafine nano mask by utilizing electospun technology will surely benefit millions of people in a time-dependent manner. Read out more: https://www.eurekaselect.com/180687/a…

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Podcast – Editorial: Image Perception

Journal Name: Current Medical Imaging
Formerly: Current Medical Imaging Reviews

Podcast by Author(s): Euishin Edmund Kim.

Volume 15 , Issue 9 , 2019

Web: https://www.eurekaselect.com/174515/a…

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