Most cited: Nutraceuticals for Promoting Longevity

Author(s):Ivan PavlovićSoliman KhatebIrina Milisav and Jamal Mahajna*

Objective: To summarize the main findings on nutraceuticals that slow aging processes by delaying and even preventing the development of multiple chronic diseases and improve productivity and quality of life in the elderly.

Methods: Literature search of the relevant papers known to the authors was conducted.

Results: The most robust environmental manipulation for extending lifespan is caloric restriction without malnutrition. Some nutraceuticals can mimic caloric restriction effects. This review will focus on the nutraceuticals that impact insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling and sirtuin activity in mediating longevity and healthspan.

Conclusion: Aging is considered to be synonymous with the appearance of major diseases and an overall decline in physical and mental performance. Caloric restriction is well established as a strategy to extend lifespan without malnutrition. A variety of nutraceuticals were reported to mimic the effect of caloric restriction by modulating the activity of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling and sirtuin activity and consequently promote longevity and healthspan.

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Most cited: The Mediterranean Diets’ Effect on Gut Microbial Composition in Comparison with the Western Diet: A Literature Review

Author(s):Ioannis-Nektarios ElmaliklisSpyridon Konteles and Antonios E. Koutelidakis*

Background: In recent years, the scientific interest about the possible role of dietary attitudes on gut microbiota modulation has been increasing.

Objective: The present literature review aimed to analyze the effect of Mediterranean diet adoption on gut microbial composition, in comparison with the Western diet.

Methods: From an initial number of 38, 21 recent studies were selected using comprehensive scientific databases and relative keywords, such as microbial composition, dietary attitudes, and beneficial effects. The selected studies were recently published based on animal models, human interventional trials, metanalyses and gut microbiome analysis, such as metagenomics.

Results: According to the basic findings of the present review study, Mediterranean diet adherence leads to a gut microbial richness and richer diversity as well as a higher abundance of genera Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium species, that stimulate the production of total short-chain fatty acids. This diet also leads to a lower Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio due to the increase of Bacteroidetes and decrease of Firmicutes, accompanied by a decrease of circulating Trimethylamine N oxide levels and a reduction in abundance of Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae, Proteobacteria and Coprococcus, in comparison to the Western diet.

Conclusion: Further understanding of the multifactorial effect of both Mediterranean and Western diet on gut microbiota could allow the establishment of nutritional educational programs and nutritional policies with aim to improve human health by modulating gut microbial composition.

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Most cited: Functional Food with Some Health Benefits, So Called Superfood: A Review

Author(s):Ena Gupta and Pragya Mishra*

The possible beneficial properties of functional foods are due to their content in bioactive ingredients, with specific biological properties. A number of processed functional foods are available in the market – probiotic yogurt, calcium and ω-3 fatty acids enriched orange juice and milk. Simultaneously, new research studies confer potential health benefits of various conventional foods (salmon, berries, green tea, vegetables, fruits, nuts, cereals and breads, etc.) termed as “superfood” which is a marketing term and there is no established medical definition. Following suitable dietary patterns, superfood reduces the risk of degenerative diseases by promoting physical and emotional health. Scientific evidences suggest that superfoods are a dense source of antioxidants, minerals, vitamins and other nutrients. There is insufficient research on the exact explanation of the term ‘superfood’and its health claims by different companies without any legislation. This buzz word has created confusion among consumers, that how much and what quantity should make a food superfood, as no single food may be as nutritious to be stated as a superfood. This article introduces further investigation on superfood which was categorized on the basis of their major constituents and potential health benefits. Further, there is a need for more reviews, researches, clinical trials and human case studies to investigate or test superfood.

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Seed Oil Wastes: Potent Substrates for the Production of Aquafeed Meal

Author(s):Fataneh Hashempour-Baltork and Kianoush Khosravi-Darani*

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Editors choice: Chronic Kidney Disease, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk: Insights and Associated Mechanistic Pathways

Author(s):Thaís Rodrigues Nogueira*Camila Santos Marreiros and Betânia de Jesus e Silva de Almendra Freitas


This study is a narrative review that aims to address the conceptual, characteristic, pathophysiological, and mechanistic aspects that define the profile of metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The objective was to investigate current knowledge and elucidate, through discussions on the topic, the main interrelated paths. This review was carried out unsystematically, from March to May 2020, by means of a survey of the literature indexed in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus (Elsevier®) databases. The scientific materials collected showed that the cross-talk between the diseases in question is mainly based on the conditions of resistance to insulin action, endothelial dysfunction, activation pathways of the Renin- Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, and adipokine imbalance, also emphasizing the influence of atherosclerotic events in kidney damage. Furthermore, it was reinforced that inflammatory processes play an important role in the worsening and evolution of the clinical condition of patients, especially when they have underlying pathologies chronically treated for subclinical inflammation. It is expected that more original research will propose investigating other possible interactions with a view to standardized treatment of these diseases or nutritional management.

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Editors choice: Benefits of Coffee Consumption for Human Health: An Overview

Author(s):Jéssica Petrine Castro Pereira*Fernanda Aparecida Castro Pereira and Carlos José Pimenta

Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and is popular for its characteristic flavor and rich organoleptic properties.

Aim: Based on published articles, the aims of this review are i) study the association between coffee consumption and benefits to human health; ii) the effects of coffee consumption on some pathologies; and iii) provide a description of coffee’s bioactive compounds.

Discussion: Coffee presents bioactive compounds, which include phenolic compounds, especially chlorogenic acid (caffeoylquinic acid), trigonelline, and diterpenes, such as cafestol and kahweol. These compounds are related to the beneficial effects for human health, including high antioxidant activity, antimutagenic activity, hepatoprotective action, reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, decreased incidence of inflammatory diseases, reduced menopausal symptoms, and others. Coffee’s bioactive compounds are caffeine, chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, cafestol and kahweol, which are closely related to coffee’s beneficial effects.

Conclusion: The present review clarified that the benefits of moderate coffee consumption outweigh the associated risks.

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Meet the Associate Editorial Board Member

Author(s): Tapan Behl

Dr. Tapan Behl obtained his Ph.D. degree (in 2017) in Pharmacology from University of Delhi, New
Delhi, India. Dr. Behl is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmacology at Chitkara
College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Rajpura, India. His skills and expertise mainly lie in the subject areas/fields of Cell Signaling, Apoptosis, Antioxidant Activity, Reactive Oxygen Species, Oxidative
Stress, Pathology, Diabetic Complications, etc. Dr. Behl, as an author/co-author, has published more than
15 articles in various journals of international repute.

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CURRENT ARTICLE: Automated Cultivation System for Microalgae: Growth Factors and Control

Author(s):Jiun Gia KhorHooi Ren LimWen Yi Chia and Kit Wayne Chew*

Background: Microalgae have been a hot research topic due to their various biorefinery applications, particularly microalgae as potential alternative nutraceuticals and supplements have a large and rapidly growing market. However, commercial production is limited due to high processing cost, low efficiency, and scale up of biomass production.

Objective: It is important to control the microalgae cultivation system with optimal parameters to maximize biomass productivity. The growth factors, including pH, temperature, light intensity, salinity, and nutrients, are discussed as these can significantly affect the cultivation. To monitor and control these in real-time, an automated system incorporating advanced digital technologies like sensors, controllers, artificial intelligence (AI), and the Internet of Things (IoT) could be applied.

Conclusion: This perspective provides insights into the implementation of an automated microalgae cultivation system that improves productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency.

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Current article: Nutraceutical Approach to the Management of Cystic Fibrosis

Author(s):Manali Chindarkar and Srujana Medithi*

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive monogenic disease marked by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations affect respiratory, digestive and reproductive functions and impede bicarbonate, bile acid, and sweat secretion. Moreover, the current trend indicates that CF is no longer only a paediatric disease, but has progressively become a disease that also affects adults. This calls for addressing the condition with an appropriate nutraceutical approach.

Objective: The study aims to find and collate nutritional targets in the management of cystic fibrosis.

Methods: Studies highlighting the benefits of nutrients or nutraceuticals in the management of cystic fibrosis were included from previously published research articles (1971 to 2020). Data including nutrients, nutraceuticals, study design, study model, sample size, age, dose and duration of the dose of the supplement were extracted from the studies included and explored to understand their role.

Results: About 26 studies were included in the present review. It was found that nutrient interventions comprising nutraceuticals, including dietary fibre, proteins and amino acids (taurine, arginine, glutathione), fats (medium-chain triglycerides, polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 fatty acids), phytochemicals (apigenin, genistein, quercetin, curcumin, allicin, beta-carotene, Pulmonaria officinalis L, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate), micronutrients, including vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin K, magnesium and zinc in addition to antioxidants exhibit improvement in the symptomatic condition of cystic fibrosis patients.

Conclusion: The advent of nutraceuticals in the food industry and studies indicating their promising benefits have paved a path for targeted therapies in cystic fibrosis.

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Current article: Could Polyphenolic Food Intake Help in the Control of Type 2 Diabetes? A Narrative Review of the Last Evidence

Author(s):Luigi FerraraMarko Joksimovic and Stefania D’Angelo*

Background: Diabetes is one of the most serious global public health concerns, imposing a significant burden on public health and socio-economic development, with type 2 diabetes accounting for 90 percent of individuals with the disease (T2D).

Introduction: Beyond the hereditary factor, there are several risk factors associated with the development of this syndrome; the lifestyle plays an increasingly predominant role in the development of the metabolic complications related to T2D and a significant role in the onset of this syndrome is played by an unbalanced diet. Polyphenolic food is a plant-based food, including vegetables, fruits, whole grains, tea, coffee, and nuts. In recent years, there has been growing evidence that polyphenols, due to their biological properties, may be used as nutraceuticals and supplementary treatments for various aspects of T2D. Polyphenols may influence glycemia and T2D through hypoglycemic properties, such as reduced insulin resistance, reduced fasting blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin value. Based on several in vitro, animal models, and some human studies, it has been detected that polyphenol-rich products modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, attenuate hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, improve adipose tissue metabolism, and alleviate oxidative stress and stress-sensitive signaling pathways and inflammatory processes.

Methods: This manuscript summarizes human clinical trials conducted within the last 5 years linking dietary polyphenols to T2D, with a focus on polyphenolic foods found in the Mediterranean diet.

Results: Intaking polyphenols and their food sources have demonstrated beneficial effects on insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Prospective studies have shown inverse associations between polyphenol intake and T2D. The Mediterranean diet and its key components, olive oil, nuts, and red wine, have been inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2D.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the intake of polyphenols may be beneficial for both insulin resistance and T2D risk. However, other human clinical studies are needed to evaluate the suitable dose and duration of supplementation with polyphenolic food in T2D patients.

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