Press Release for EurekAlert! Non-ambient conditions in the investigation and manufacturing of drug forms

To become a drug, a pharmacologically active compound must be prepared in a specific form. This form must be robust during manufacturing, packaging, storage and transport, and must administer the correct dose to the patient. To successfully prepare a drug form, one often needs to produce solid samples with controlled crystal structure and a specific particle size and shape. To further complicate matters, these compounds, these drug particles must often end up as a part of a multi-component composite. The present review summarizes how extreme pressure and temperature conditions help achieve this highly tuned material.

In modern culture, it is very rare to find an individual who has never taken any form of medication. It must follow that the pharmaceutical industry is required to produce an enormous quantity of drug products, which can take a variety of different forms: solutions for injections, inhalation powders, sprays, tablets, ointments, patches, amongst others. In many cases, although adopting different administration routes, different trade names are used to market the very same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This begs the question: if these products are the same API, is there any difference in which form is taken?

Quite simply put, yes.

Drug molecules move around the body and, by necessity, act at the molecular level. However, many of these compounds are manufactured as solids, which must either be dissolved prior to injection, or are expected to dissolve on digestion in biological fluids. In either case, dissolution is required to release individual molecules into the body.

Solid pharmaceuticals containing the same API (either pure or with additives) can have different crystal structures (polymorphism) or be amorphous. Additionally, solid particles can differ in size, shape, meso-structure, and surface charge. Within the bulk material, the spatial distribution of an API and the additives can vary. Control of these, and many other, characteristics is within the scope of materials sciences and solid-state chemistry. The chemical and material properties of their physical form therefore needs to be identified and optimized for in vivo performance, reliable manufacture and the protection of intellectual property.

Drugs are materials, not simply molecules [1-12], By viewing drugs in this way, one can apply the knowledge of solid-state chemistry, materials science and non-ambient conditions to obtain solid forms with optimized properties. These conditions include, among others, different types of mechanical and ultrasonic treatment, hydrostatic compression, high-temperature or cryogenic spray-drying, and crystallization from supercritical solvents. Solid-state reactions (e.g. dehydration or clathrate decomposition) can be efficient in accessing metastable polymorphs or in uniformly micronizing the sample. To achieve control over drug forms and the processes used for their robust manufacturing, one needs to account for both the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of their transformations.

The review contains over 400 references and provides a comprehensive guide through the vast ocean of publications in this field. This work is based on the personal experience of the author over several decades of active research.

For more information visit: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-pharmaceutical-design/volume/22/issue/32/page/4981/

Upcoming Thematic Issue – Optimization in design of Natural Structures, Biomaterials, Bioinformatics and Biometric techniques for solving Physiological needs and ultimate performance of Bio-Devices

CB-THEMATIC FLYER -Dr Kelvin KL Wong

http://www.eurekaselect.com/642/journal/current-bioinformatics

New Issue :: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology 5, Issue 1

Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology publishes original manuscripts, reviews, thematic issues, rapid technical notes and commentaries that provide insights into the synthesis, characterisation and pharmaceutical (or diagnostic) application of materials at the nanoscale. The nanoscale is defined as a size range of below 1 µm. Scientific findings related to micro and macro systems with functionality residing within features defined at the nanoscale are also within the scope of the journal. Manuscripts detailing the synthesis, exhaustive characterisation, biological evaluation, clinical testing and/ or toxicological assessment of nanomaterials are of particular interest to the journal’s readership. Articles should be self contained, centred around a well founded hypothesis and should aim to showcase the pharmaceutical/ diagnostic implications of the nanotechnology approach. Manuscripts should aim, wherever possible, to demonstrate the in vivo impact of any nanotechnological intervention. As reducing a material to the nanoscale is capable of fundamentally altering the material’s properties, the journal’s readership is particularly interested in new characterisation techniques and the advanced properties that originate from this size reduction. Both bottom up and top down approaches to the realisation of nanomaterials lie within the scope of the journal.

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Articles from the journal Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology 5, Issue 1:

                       For details on the articles, please visit this link :: http://bit.ly/2oU6zs1

Highlighted Article Flyer for the journal “Current Pharmaceutical Design”

Kaja Blagotinšek

https://benthamscience.com/journals/current-pharmaceutical-design/

Most Accessed Article – “Herb-Drug Interactions: An Insight into Cardiovascular Diseases Based on Case Reports”

Journal: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Author(s): Cheila Batista, N. R. Jesus, Catia M. Silva, Tiago P. Silva, Maria G. Campos

Graphical Abstract: 

Abstract:

Cardiovascular patients frequently use herbal medicinal products, in order to contribute to the improvement of their chronic condition without medical intervention. However, they are likely to suffer from adverse effects from natural products and herb-drug interactions. In this work we present the results collected from a public campaign “Learning Health, among Plants and Medicines”, carried out by the Observatory of Herb-Drug Interactions (www.oipm.uc.pt), to alert cardiovascular patients and healthcare providers for the potential occurrence of herb-drug interactions with cardiovascular therapy. From the data received, it was highlighted the prevalence of certain natural products used by many cardiovascular patients in Portugal, particularly goji berries, green tea, mangosteen and rooibos that have significant cardiovascular effects. For this reason their intake should be carefully monitored in these patients. This prevalence of consumption suggests a pattern in their use in Portugal and a prevention of herb-drug interactions should be carried out by the health professionals. The ending results also indicate that there is still a lack of knowledge about the possible risks of herbal products intake, which may adversely affect the health of any patient. Thus becomes clear the value of the role of health professionals in the screening of such interactions.

To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/146169

New Issue :: Current Aging Science 10, Issue 2

Current Aging Science publishes frontier review and experimental articles in all areas of aging and age-related research that may influence longevity. This multidisciplinary journal will help in understanding the biology and mechanism of aging, genetics, pathogenesis, intervention of normal aging process and preventive strategies of age-related disorders. The journal publishes objective reviews written by experts and leaders actively engaged in research using cellular, clinical, molecular, and animal models, including lower organism models (e.g., yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila). In addition to the affect of aging on integrated systems, the journal also covers original articles on recent research in fast emerging areas of adults stem cells, brain imaging, calorie restriction, immunosenescence, molecular diagnostics, pharmacology and clinical aspects of aging. Manuscripts are encouraged that relate to developmental programming of aging and the synergistic mechanism of aging with cardiovascular diseases, obesity and neurodegenerative disorders.

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Articles from the journal Current Aging Science 10, Issue 2:

                      For details on the articles, please visit this link :: http://bit.ly/2oHCHi6

 

Testimonial by Cesar V. Borlongan!

Cesar V. Borlongan

Contributed Article:Utilizing Delta Opioid Receptors And Peptides for Cytoprotection: Implications In Stroke And Other Neurological Disorders

Highlighted Article Flyer for the journal “Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology”

CPB-Articles_18-15-Hoon Sunwoo

http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-pharmaceutical-biotechnology/

New Issue :: Current Medicinal Chemistry 24, Issue 5

Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews and guest edited thematic issues written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.

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Articles from the journal Current Medicinal Chemistry 24, Issue 5:

For details on the articles, please visit this link :: http://bit.ly/2pIcrlq

World Haemophilia Day 2017!

world--Haemophilia-day

World Hemophilia Day is an international observance held annually on April 17. It is an awareness day for hemophilia and other bleeding disorders.

Bentham Science publishes very important research studies on Haemophilia in the following journals:

Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets