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Editors Choice Article | Small Animal Models for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis: Proceedings of an NIAID Workshop

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

Author(s): Ramesh Akkina, Daniel L. Barber, Moses T. Bility, Karl-Dimiter Bissig, Benjamin J. Burwitz, Katrin Eichelberg, Janice J. Endsley, J. Victor Garcia, Richard Hafner, Petros C. Karakousis, Brent E. Korba, Rajen Koshy, Chris Lambros, Stephan Menne, Eric L. Nuermberger, Alexander Ploss, Brendan K. Podell, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Brigitte E. Sanders-Beer*, Selvakumar Subbian, Angela Wahl.

 

 

 

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Abstract:

The main advantage of animal models of infectious diseases over in vitro studies is the gain in the understanding of the complex dynamics between the immune system and the pathogen. While small animal models have practical advantages over large animal models, it is crucial to be aware of their limitations. Although the small animal model at least needs to be susceptible to the pathogen under study to obtain meaningful data, key elements of pathogenesis should also be reflected when compared to humans. Welldesigned small animal models for HIV, hepatitis viruses and tuberculosis require, additionally, a thorough understanding of the similarities and differences in the immune responses between humans and small animals and should incorporate that knowledge into the goals of the study. To discuss these considerations, the NIAID hosted a workshop on ‘Small Animal Models for HIV, Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis’ on May 30, 2019. Highlights of the workshop are outlined below.

 

To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/177698/article

Press Release | New book series aims to provide frontier reviews on anti-infective agents

 

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Frontiers in Anti-Infective Agents is a book series that focuses on antibiotics and vaccines, both current and new.

The series is essential reading for general readers, healthcare professionals, researchers and academicians actively involved in research on infectious diseases and anti-infective therapeutic drugs.

The first volume is a comprehensive documentation on major infectious diseases from tropical countries which pose a serious threat to global healthcare programs. These include diseases such as tuberculosis, AIDS, leishmaniasis (kala-azar), elephantiasis, malaria, leprosy, various fungal disorders and emergent viral diseases. Due to the widespread use of antibiotics, there is an emergence of drug resistant pathogens in many regions. Hence, there is a need to search for novel, cost-effective bioactive compounds that demonstrate high efficacy and low toxicity in human cells from unexplored ecosystems to combat emerging drug resistant pathogens. Chapters written for this volume focus on the pathogenesis and etiology of each of the mentioned diseases, updated WHO reports wherever applicable, conventional drugs and their pharmacokinetics as well as new approaches to develop anti-infective agents.

The authors also present a detailed report on multi-drug resistant pathogens (‘superbugs’) and new measures being taken up to eradicate them. Information about new antimicrobials (bioactive peptides and silk protein sericin) and the approaches taken by scientists and healthcare professionals for successful targeting of these molecules for human medicine. For more information, please visit: https://benthambooks.com/book/9789811432736/https://benthambooks.com/book/9789811432736/

About The Editors:

Dr. K. Tamreihao completed his PhD and Master of Science from the Department of Biochemistry, Manipur University, India. He is working as PDF in a project sponsored by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. His research interest lies in the area of plant growth promotion by actinobacteria and feather degradation by keratinolytic actinobacteria and the biofertilizing potential of degraded feathers.

Dr Saikat Mukherjee completed his M.Sc (Biotechnology) from Calcutta University and PhD from CSIR- Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata. He has participated in postdoctoral research programs in University of Geneva, Switzerland and Manipur University, India. His research expertise is in mitochondrial bioenergetics and purification of protein complexes from protozoal, human, bacterial and algal systems.

Prof. Debananda S. Ningthoujam earned his Masters of Science (Life Sciences) from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and PhD (Environmental Biotechnology) from NEERI, Nagpur. He is currently working as a Professor of Biochemistry at the university of Manipur. Prof. Ningthoujam is a life member of several scientific society including AMI, BRSI, SBC, ASM and ISCA. He is actively researching actinomycete biology and biotechnology and has several completed and ongoing projects to his credit. Six new actinomycete species have been reported from his lab. Prof. Ningthoujam has over 25 years of teaching experience and five research scholars have earned their PhDs under his mentorship. He has also supervised several PDF candidates.

READ FULL PRESS RELEASE TO FIND OUT MORE: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-12/bsp-nbs122319.php

Editors Choice Article | Rational Design of Colchicine Derivatives as anti-HIV Agents via QSAR and Molecular Docking

Journal Name: Medicinal Chemistry

Author(s): Apilak Worachartcheewan*, Napat Songtawee, Suphakit Siriwong, Supaluk Prachayasittikul*, Chanin Nantasenamat, Virapong Prachayasittikul.

 

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Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an infective agent that causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Therefore, the rational design of inhibitors for preventing the progression of the disease is required.

Objective: This study aims to construct quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, molecular docking and newly rational design of colchicine and derivatives with anti-HIV activity.

Methods: A data set of 24 colchicine and derivatives with anti-HIV activity were employed to develop the QSAR models using machine learning methods (e.g. multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM)), and to study a molecular docking.

Results: The significant descriptors relating to the anti-HIV activity included JGI2, Mor24u, Gm and R8p+ descriptors. The predictive performance of the models gave acceptable statistical qualities as observed by correlation coefficient (Q2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of leave-one out cross-validation (LOO-CV) and external sets. Particularly, the ANN method outperformed MLR and SVM methods that displayed LOO−CV 2 Q and RMSELOO-CV of 0.7548 and 0.5735 for LOOCV set, and Ext 2 Q of 0.8553 and RMSEExt of 0.6999 for external validation. In addition, the molecular docking of virus-entry molecule (gp120 envelope glycoprotein) revealed the key interacting residues of the protein (cellular receptor, CD4) and the site-moiety preferences of colchicine derivatives as HIV entry inhibitors for binding to HIV structure. Furthermore, newly rational design of colchicine derivatives using informative QSAR and molecular docking was proposed.

Conclusion: These findings serve as a guideline for the rational drug design as well as potential development of novel anti-HIV agents. To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/165617/article

ARTICLE BY DISEASE – Anal Cancer: Focus on HIV-Positive Patients in the HAART Era

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “ANAL CANCER”

 

 

Abstract:

Anal cancer represents an increasing health problem, especially in immune-compromised patients, as HIVpositive patients. Notably, a significant higher incidence rate is reported among HIV infected patients with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To date, no randomised trial supports the correlation between existing screening strategies and reduced progression of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) to anal cancer or improved survival. Nevertheless, screening and treatment of AIN by topical agents should be implemented in high risk population. Data on invasive anal cancer treatment show that combined modality treatment (CMT) is the treatment of choice. Early reports on HIV-positive patients describe higher treatment toxicity and a relation with lower CD4 count and higher HIV viral load. More recently, reported outcomes seem to be similar in HIV-positive population and general population. Reports on a rise in local recurrence rates and in acute side effects along with a correlation with pre-treatment CD4 counts in HIV-positive patients, are not confirmed by all authors. The development of the first approved vaccine is a milestone in the field of anogenital cancers. However, many questions are still unresolved especially as concerns immunization in the setting of HIV infection.

 

 

For more details, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/94357/article

 

 

High Protein Intake Aggravates HIV

Today, 1st of December, is observed as World Aids Day to support the people suffering with AIDS caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). For the last few decades there has been great attention given to HIV/AIDS with focus on its occurrence, causes, growth, harmfulness and possible preventions and cure. Researchers around the world have joined arms to fight and eradicate this deadly disease.

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Studies have also shown that diet also has considerable impact on AIDS patients. Recent research done by Dr. Evgeny Vlad. Butorov from Municipal Center of HIV/AIDS prophylaxis, Surgut, Russian Federation, has shown that high intake of protein can aggravate things for the patients. The study was conducted on HIV-infected patients to assess how the dietary protein can help or hamper their conditions. Protein enhanced the growth of the virus, suppresses the human immune system and allows other viruses and bacteria to attack the patients. The study opens doors for further research on the impact of diet and also the development of treatments for this dangerous disease.

This study is published in Current HIV Research in the article, Impact of High Protein Intake on Viral Load and Hematological Parameters in HIV-infected Patients.

Highlighted Article – Haart in HIV/AIDS Treatments, Future Trends – Infectious Disorders – Drug Targets

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/152220/article

An analysis of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Taiwan!

The spread of an HIV epidemic has been recorded since the last 10 years in Taiwan.  Especially amongst those people who inject drugs in their veins. There was a hefty increase in patients suffering from HIV/AIDS since the past 3 years.

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The exact number of HIV patients had yet to be reported, hence, a research team conducted a survey using a compartmental mathematical model for disease transmission and HIV/AIDS surveillance data during 2001-2011 in which it was observed that the estimated under reporting ratio in 2011 is 0.45:1 decreased from 1:1 ratio in 2000. Based on the assumption that model parameters remain unaltered, a future prognosis was presented of both the reported and the unreported persons living with HIV/AIDS.

An observed data set from 2012-2014 showed lower than the expected number of persons living with HIV/AIDS and new deaths maybe because of increased treatment. On the other hand, the percentage of newly reported HIV/AIDS patients has increased which further warrants investigation.

For more detail read article: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-hiv-research/volume/14/issue/2/page/138/

World AIDS Day!

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Today marks the World AIDS day. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is one of the world’s most serious health and development challenges. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Bentham Science publishes articles related to AIDS in its high impact journals including :

Current HIV Research

World AIDS Day 2014!

Raising Awareness
Raising Awareness

RAISING AWARENESS

Knowledge of #HIV is on the decline despite the fact there are more people living with HIV than ever before. It is important for everyone to Act Aware because being aware of the facts about HIV and acting on that knowledge to inform your behaviour are vital steps in taking care of your own health and the health of others. Acting aware also ensures you treat everyone living with HIV fairly and with understanding.

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