Animated Abstract | A Possible Modulation Mechanism of Intramolecular and Intermolecular Interactions for NCAM Polysialylation and Cell Migration

 

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Author(s): Bo Lu, Xue-Hui Liu, Si-Ming Liao, Zhi-Long Lu, Dong Chen, Frederic A. Troy II, Ri-Bo Huang*, Guo-Ping Zhou*.

 

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Polysialic acid (polySia) is a novel glycan that posttranslationally modifies neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) in mammalian cells. Up-regulation of polySia-NCAM expression or NCAM polysialylation is associated with tumor cell migration and progression in many metastatic cancers and neurocognition. It has been known that two highly homologous mammalian polysialyltransferases (polySTs), ST8Sia II (STX) and ST8Sia IV (PST), can catalyze polysialylation of NCAM, and two polybasic domains, polybasic region (PBR) and polysialyltransferase domain (PSTD) in polySTs play key roles in affecting polyST activity or NCAM polysialylation. However, the molecular mechanisms of NCAM polysialylation and cell migration are still not entirely clear. In this minireview, the recent research results about the intermolecular interactions between the PBR and NCAM, the PSTD and cytidine monophosphate-sialic acid (CMP-Sia), the PSTD and polySia, and as well as the intramolecular interaction between the PBR and the PSTD within the polyST, are summarized. Based on these cooperative interactions, we have built a novel model of NCAM polysialylation and cell migration mechanisms, which may be helpful to design and develop new polysialyltransferase inhibitors. To know more about our Animated Abstract, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/175822/article

Animated Abstract | Hematopoietic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: HOX and GATA Transcription Factors as Master Regulators

Journal Name: Current Genomics

Author(s): Khaled Alsayegh, Lorena V. Cortés-Medina, Gerardo Ramos-Mandujano, Heba Badraiq, Mo Li*

 

 

 

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Numerous human disorders of the blood system would directly or indirectly benefit from therapeutic approaches that reconstitute the hematopoietic system. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), either from matched donors or ex vivo manipulated autologous tissues, are the most used cellular source of cell therapy for a wide range of disorders. Due to the scarcity of matched donors and the difficulty of ex vivo expansion of HSCs, there is a growing interest in harnessing the potential of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) as a de novo source of HSCs. PSCs make an ideal source of cells for regenerative medicine in general and for treating blood disorders in particular because they could expand indefinitely in culture and differentiate to any cell type in the body. However, advancement in deriving functional HSCs from PSCs has been slow. This is partly due to an incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying normal hematopoiesis. In this review, we discuss the latest efforts to generate human PSC (hPSC)-derived HSCs capable of long-term engraftment. We review the regulation of the key transcription factors (TFs) in hematopoiesis and hematopoietic differentiation, the Homeobox (HOX) and GATA genes, and the interplay between them and microRNAs. We also propose that precise control of these master regulators during the course of hematopoietic differentiation is key to achieving functional hPSC-derived HSCs. To know more about our Animated Abstract, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/175820/article

Animated Abstract | Current Advances in Developing Inhibitors of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps

Extend the scope and visibility of your research by creating an animated abstract.

 

Bentham Science has collaborated with Focus Medica, one of the world’s largest publishers of expert animated atlases and videos in medicine and science.

An animated abstract will help summarise the essential discoveries/ key findings of your published research or review article. Each professionally produced full-coloured animated abstract in video format (length 3 – 5 minutes) is accompanied by an English spoken or foreign language commentary. The animated abstract will be published online along with the published article.

The payment for an animated abstract will be US$ 1400 for English language, and US$ 1900 for Foreign language articles. Initially, an advance payment of US$ 500 of the total payment will be payable to the Publisher to start work on the Animated Abstract, US$ 900 (English language) or US$ 1400 (Foreign language) will be payable on completion of the Animated Abstract.

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Authors will be asked whether they wish to opt-in for this paid service, and if not, the article will be published as normal. Animated abstracts are available as open access (free viewing) for maximum visibility and awareness to your readers at anytime, anywhere. The animated abstracts are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution – NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

One of our animated abstracts can be viewed below:

Current Advances in Developing Inhibitors of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Author(s): Hannah Y. Mahmood, Shirin Jamshidi, J. Mark Sutton, Khondaker M. Rahman.

 

 

 

Antimicrobial resistance represents a significant challenge to future healthcare provision.An acronym ESKAPEE has been derived from the names of the organisms recognised as the major threats although there are a number of other organisms, notably Neisseria gonorrhoeae, that have become equally challenging to treat in the clinic. These pathogens are characterised by the ability to rapidly develop and/or acquire resistance mechanisms in response to exposure to different antimicrobial agents. A key part of the armoury of these pathogens is a series of efflux pumps, which effectively exclude or reduce the intracellular concentration of a large number of antibiotics, making the pathogens significantly more resistant. These efflux pumps are the topic of considerable interest, both from the perspective of basic understanding of efflux pump function, and its role in drug resistance but also as targets for the development of novel adjunct therapies. The necessity to overcome antimicrobial resistance has encouraged investigations into the characterisation of resistance-modifying efflux pump inhibitors to block the mechanisms of drug extrusion, thereby restoring antibacterial susceptibility and returning existing antibiotics into the clinic. A greater understanding of drug recognition and transport by multidrug efflux pumps is needed to develop clinically useful inhibitors, given the breadth of molecules that can be effluxed by these systems. This review discusses different bacterial EPIs originating from both natural source and chemical synthesis and examines the challenges to designing successful EPIs that can be useful against multidrug resistant bacteria. To know more about our Animated Abstract, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/video.html

Animated Abstracts for Articles | Preliminary Study on the Mechanism of Carvacrol Regulating Hepatocellular Carcinoma Based on Network Pharmacology

Preliminary Study on the Mechanism of Carvacrol Regulating Hepatocellular Carcinoma Based on Network Pharmacology

Journal: Letters in Drug Design & Discovery 

AuthorPro.Lidao Bao

Objective: To predict and analyze the target of anti-Hepatocellular Carcinoma(HCC) in the active constituents of Safflower by using network pharmacology.

Methods: The active compounds of safflower were collected by TCMSP, TCM-PTD database and literature mining methods. The targets of active compounds were predicted by Swiss Target Prediction server, and the target of anti-HCC drugs was collected by DisGeNET database. The target was subjected to an alignment analysis to screen out the Carvacrol, a target of safflower against HCC. The mouse HCC model was established and treated with Carvacrol. The anti-HCC target DAPK1 and PPP2R2A were verified by Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation.

Results: A total of 21 safflower active ingredients were predicted. Carvacrol was identified as a possible active ingredient according to the five principles of drug-like medicine. According to Carvacrol’s possible targets and possible targets of HCC, three co-targets were identified, including cancer-related are DAPK1 and PPP2R2A. After 20 weeks of Carvacrol treated , Carvacrol group significantly increased on DAPK1 levels and decreased PPP2R2A levels in the model mice by Western blot. Immunoprecipitation confirmed the endogenous interaction between DAPK1 and PPP2R2A.

Conclusion: Safflower can regulate the development of HCC through its active component Carvacrol, which can affect the expression of DAPK1 and PPP2R2A proteins, and the endogenous interactions of DAPK1 and PPP2R2A proteins. To read out full article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/172163/article

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