Most cited article: Overview of Drug Therapy of COVID-19 with Safety and the Potential Clinical Benefits

Author(s):Rajesh Basnet*Sandhya KhadkaBuddha Bahadur BasnetTil Bahadur Basnet and Sanjeep Sapkota


The discovery and development of the drug/vaccine for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the process of developing a preventive vaccine or treatment drug to reduce the severity of COVID-19. Internationally, hundreds of pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, university research groups, and the World Health Organization (WHO) have developed vaccines for the past few centuries. Currently, they are continuously putting effort into developing possible therapies for COVID-19 disease, which are now at various stages of the preclinical or clinical research stage. In addition, researchers are trying to accelerate the development of vaccines, antiviral drugs, and postinfection treatments. Many previously approved drug candidates are already studied to alleviate discomfort during the disease complication. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of COVID-19 therapeutic drugs.

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Podcast: Basic Guidelines for Bacteriophage Isolation and Characterization

Author(s): Safia Samir*


The world is on the cusp of a post-antibiotic period. A century ago, before the advent of antibiotics, bacteriophage therapy was the treatment of choice for bacterial infections. Although bacteriophages have yet to be approved as a treatment in Western medicine, researchers and clinicians have begun to anticipate phage therapy. Bacteriophages are viruses that depend on bacterial cell metabolism to multiply. They offer a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics and an excellent antibacterial option for combating multidrug resistance in bacteria. However, not every phage is suitable for phage therapy. In particular, prophages should not be used because they can lysogenize host cells instead of lysing them. To offer adequate therapeutic options for patients suffering from various infectious diseases, a wide selection of different phages is needed. While there is no evidence of direct toxicity induced by phage particles, it is crucial to study mammalian cell–phage interactions. This requires phage preparations to be free of bacterial cells, toxins and other compounds to avoid skewing host responses. Negative staining of purified viruses and electron microscopy remain the gold standard in the identification of bacteriophages. Interestingly, genomics has greatly changed our understanding of phage biology. Bacteriophage genome sequencing is essential to obtain a complete understanding of the bacteriophages’ biology and to obtain confirmation of their lifestyle. Full genetic sequencing of bacteriophage will enable a better understanding of the phage-encoded proteins and biomolecules (especially phage lytic enzymes) involved in the process of bacterial cell lysis and death. Mass spectrometry can be used for the identification of phage structural proteins. The use of lytic phages as biocontrol agents requires the most appropriate and standard methods to ensure application safety. This review pursues recent research and methods in molecular biology for the isolation and characterization of phages to facilitate follow-up and implementation of work for other researchers. Patents related to this topic have been mentioned in the text.

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Most Cited Article – Trends in Empirical Treatment of Hospitalized Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Nigeria

Author(s):Ebuka E. David*Ikechuku O. IgwenyiIfeanyichukwu R. IrohaChidinma N. DavidPrecious C. MbahOgochukwu F. OkpalaNkemdirim U. UkehOluchukwu OgbajiChinecherem E. Ugwurauma and Goodness C. Chukwuma

Volume 16, Issue 3, 2021

Published on: 24 November, 2021

Page: [237 – 244]

Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/2772434416666211022155438


Background: Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease with a high rate of morbidity and mortality in children below five years of age. Appropriate empirical treatment is therefore vital for reducing the incidence of the disease.

Objective: This study aimed at determining the trends in the empirical treatment of hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis.

Methods: The study involved the data analysis of 88 medical folders of children who were diagnosed with gastroenteritis from January to February 2020 (a period of gastroenteritis yearly outbreak) in Mile 4 Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Socio-demographic data and administered antibiotics data were collected.

Results: Out of the 88 children, a total of 54 (61%) children were males, while 34 (39%) were females. The ages of the children ranged between 1-51 months, while the mean age was seen at 14 months. About 58 (66%) were diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis alone, with children aged 7-12 months recording higher numbers [25 (28%)]. Severe dehydration was seen as the most common morbidity of children with acute gastroenteritis. The guardians/parents of these children stayed at home for an average of 3 days (1-6 days) before visiting the hospital. The children were treated for an average of 5 days (2-9 days) in the hospital. The most singly used antibiotics was ciprofloxacin [31 (35%)] followed by a combination of ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone [21 (24%)]. About 12 (14%) of the children were treated using a single dose of the antimalarial drug while 10 (11%) were treated in double combination therapy. The lowest duration in hospitalization (4 days) was seen in the use of a single dose regimen, while the highest hospitalization time (6 days) was seen in the use of a triple dose regimen.

Conclusion: The best empirical treatment of acute gastroenteritis may involve the use of ciprofloxacin alone and its combination with ceftriaxone. The severity of gastroenteritis may also be exacerbated with malaria. Read now:

Press Release | New book series aims to provide frontier reviews on anti-infective agents


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Frontiers in Anti-Infective Agents is a book series that focuses on antibiotics and vaccines, both current and new.

The series is essential reading for general readers, healthcare professionals, researchers and academicians actively involved in research on infectious diseases and anti-infective therapeutic drugs.

The first volume is a comprehensive documentation on major infectious diseases from tropical countries which pose a serious threat to global healthcare programs. These include diseases such as tuberculosis, AIDS, leishmaniasis (kala-azar), elephantiasis, malaria, leprosy, various fungal disorders and emergent viral diseases. Due to the widespread use of antibiotics, there is an emergence of drug resistant pathogens in many regions. Hence, there is a need to search for novel, cost-effective bioactive compounds that demonstrate high efficacy and low toxicity in human cells from unexplored ecosystems to combat emerging drug resistant pathogens. Chapters written for this volume focus on the pathogenesis and etiology of each of the mentioned diseases, updated WHO reports wherever applicable, conventional drugs and their pharmacokinetics as well as new approaches to develop anti-infective agents.

The authors also present a detailed report on multi-drug resistant pathogens (‘superbugs’) and new measures being taken up to eradicate them. Information about new antimicrobials (bioactive peptides and silk protein sericin) and the approaches taken by scientists and healthcare professionals for successful targeting of these molecules for human medicine. For more information, please visit:

About The Editors:

Dr. K. Tamreihao completed his PhD and Master of Science from the Department of Biochemistry, Manipur University, India. He is working as PDF in a project sponsored by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. His research interest lies in the area of plant growth promotion by actinobacteria and feather degradation by keratinolytic actinobacteria and the biofertilizing potential of degraded feathers.

Dr Saikat Mukherjee completed his M.Sc (Biotechnology) from Calcutta University and PhD from CSIR- Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata. He has participated in postdoctoral research programs in University of Geneva, Switzerland and Manipur University, India. His research expertise is in mitochondrial bioenergetics and purification of protein complexes from protozoal, human, bacterial and algal systems.

Prof. Debananda S. Ningthoujam earned his Masters of Science (Life Sciences) from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and PhD (Environmental Biotechnology) from NEERI, Nagpur. He is currently working as a Professor of Biochemistry at the university of Manipur. Prof. Ningthoujam is a life member of several scientific society including AMI, BRSI, SBC, ASM and ISCA. He is actively researching actinomycete biology and biotechnology and has several completed and ongoing projects to his credit. Six new actinomycete species have been reported from his lab. Prof. Ningthoujam has over 25 years of teaching experience and five research scholars have earned their PhDs under his mentorship. He has also supervised several PDF candidates.


EDITOR’S CHOICE – The Modification and Design of Antimicrobial Peptide

Journal:  Current Pharmaceutical Design

Author(s): Yidan Gao, Hengtong Fang, Lu Fang, Dawei Liu, Jinsong Liu, Menghan Su, Zhi Fang, Wenzhi Ren*, Huping Jiao*


The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a group of unique naturally occurring anti-microbial compounds with around 50 amino acids. It represents promising therapeutic agents to the infectious disease without concerning about drug resistance. However, commercial development of these peptides for even the simplest application has been hindered by the limitations of sources, instability, toxicity and bioavailability. To improve the properties of the artificial synthesized AMPs, the modification and design are the hotspots of the AMPs research. In fact, more than half of the known AMPs are naturally modified. In this review, two types of modification strategies, biochemical modification and chemical modification were summarized. Although, the chemical modification is versatile and direct, the manufacturing cost is greatly increased compared to the antibiotics. With the recent progress of the protein modification enzyme, the biochemical modification of the antimicrobial peptide followed by heterologous expression has great application prospects.

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Article by Disease – “Insights into the Zinc-Dependent Deacetylase LpxC: Biochemical Properties and Inhibitor Design”



The bacterial enzyme UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC), catalyzing the first committed step of lipid A biosynthesis, represents a promising target in the development of novel antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria. Structure, catalytic reaction mechanism and regulation of the Zn2+-dependent metalloamidase have been intensively investigated. The enzyme is required for growth and viability of Gram-negative bacteria, displays no sequence homology with any mammalian protein, but is highly conserved in Gram-negative bacteria, thus permitting the development of Gram-negative selective antibacterial agents with limited off-target effects. Several smallmolecule LpxC inhibitors have been developed, like the substrate analog TU-514 (12a), the aryloxazoline L-161,240 (13w), the sulfonamide BB-78485 (23a), the N-aroyl-L-threonine derivative CHIR-090 (24a), the sulfone-containing pyridone LpxC-3 (43e), and the uridine-based inhibitor 1-68A (47a), displaying diverse inhibitory and antibacterial activities. Most of these compounds share a Zn2+-binding hydroxamate moiety attached to a structural element addressing the hydrophobic tunnel or the UDP binding site. The butadiynyl derivative ACHN-975 (28) is the first LpxC inhibitor entering clinical trials.

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Article by Disease – “Cranberry for Urinary Tract Infection: From Bench to Bedside”

Article by Disease on “Urology”


Urinary tract infections are common infectious diseases which can occur in any part of the urinary tract such as bladder, kidney, ureters, and urethra. They are commonly caused by bacteria that enter through the urethra. Urinary tract infections commonly develop in the bladder and spread to renal tissues. Up to now, there are different antimicrobial agents which have beneficial role on urinary tract infections. However, most of them cause different adverse effects and therefore, much attention has been paid to the search for effective therapeutic agents with negligible adverse effects. Cranberry is known as one of the most important edible plants, which possesses potent antimicrobial effects against the bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections. Growing evidence has shown that cranberry suppresses urinary tract infections and eradicates the bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to critically review the available literature regarding the antimicrobial activities of cranberry against urinary tract infection microorganisms. In addition, we discuss etiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and current drugs of urinary tract infections to provide a more complete picture of this disease.

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Bentham Open Access Article


The article entitled “A 30-years Review on Pharmacokinetics of Antibiotics: Is the Right Time for Pharmacogenetics?” in the journal Current Drug Metabolism, 2014, 15, 581-598, is now open for all to view and access.

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Podcast by Dr. Marina

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery
Vol.8, No. 2, 2013
Article: “Photosensitizers as an alternative to antibiotics.
Author: Dr. Marina Nisnevitch

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