Most cited article: Contribution to Pharmacological Valorisation of Algerian Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. Subsp. Atlanticum (Pomel) Maire; Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities

Author(s):Sofiane Guettaf*Abdelmoumen BenmerzougBensouici ChawkiYavuz Selim ÇakmakSaliha DahamnaAbderrahmane Baghiani and Daoud Harzallah

Background: The traditional pharmacopoeia is full of potential resources for molecules with therapeutic effects involving the inhibition of enzymes linked to some diseases.

Objective: This work aimed to test in vitro neuroprotective activity against Alzheimer’s disease (AD) combined with the antioxidant effect of root extracts obtained by water, water/methanol, and ethyl acetate of the endemic Arctium minus. subsp. Atlanticum, a native of Algeria.

Methods: The different extracts of the root of the studied plant were obtained by decoction or maceration. The inhibitory effect of acetyl/butyrylcholinesterase (AChE/BChE) was achieved by a colorimetric method. Similarly, the antioxidant activity was measured based on several mechanisms: 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and galvinoxyl (GOR) radicals free scavenging assays, β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC).

Results: In the various tests carried out, the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) possessed the most powerful antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities compared to the other samples. The IC50 and A0.5 values of DPPH, GOR, β-carotene, CUPRAC, anti-AChE, and anti-BChE assays were 69.45±5.49, 28.87±0.18, 121.58±16.76, 37.41±1.59, 265±21, and 240±6.3 μg / mL, respectively. Likewise, a correlation could be deduced between the type of extract and the potent antioxidant/anticholinesterase potential.

Conclusion: This work examines for the first time the anticholinesterase potential combined with the antioxidant effect of Algerian Arctium minus. subsp. Atlantic. This association between the two effects could be effective in the fight against AD, and therefore, the use of this natural resource may be possible in combating this aspect of neurodegeneration.

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Editors choice: Nutraceutical Potentials of Azanza garckeana (Snot Apple): A Review

Author(s):Abiola Fatimah AdenowoFausat Titilola SalisuMushafau Adewale Akinsanya and Mutiu Idowu Kazeem*

Background: Nutraceuticals are products derived from natural sources and are used as therapeutic agents for the management of various health disorders. Several nutraceuticals have been produced from fruits, including wild edible fruits. Azanza garckeana is an example of wild edible fruit belonging to the Malvaceae family. It is a semi-deciduous flowering plant that grows in savanna- wooded grasslands and open forests. It can be found in tropical Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, and some countries of Western Africa. All parts of the plant are useful for medical and economic purposes. There are various traditional claims on the application of various parts of the plant in the management and treatment of diabetes, infertility, aches and pains, hemorrhage, liver and cardiac diseases, etc.

Objective: This article presents a review of the plant Azanza garckeana regarding its botanical description, its traditional relevance economically and medically, and its established nutritional as well as pharmacological relevance based on reported in vitro and in vivo experimental investigations.

Conclusion: Experimental reports on the nutritional and pharmacological potentials of Azanza garckeana are sparse. Therefore, there is a need for extensive research to further establish the plant as a potential candidate for a pharmacological or nutraceutical agent for the management of oxidative stress-related diseases and other human health disorders.

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Most Cited Article – A Comparative Analysis of Bark and Leaf Essential Oil and their Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial Activities and Genotoxicity of North East Indian Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume

Author(s):Roktim GogoiNeelav SarmaRikraj LoyingSudin Kumar PandeyTwahira Begum and Mohan Lal*

Volume 11, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 19 November, 2019

Page: [74 – 84]Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/2210315509666191119111800


Background: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume ( Lauraceae) bark and leaf essential oil possesses eugenol as the major component. Both the essential oils have the potential antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, antimicrobial and negligible genotoxicity.

Objective: A comparative chemical composition and biological evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, bark and leaf essential oils, originated from North-East India has been investigated in the present study.

Methods: Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis was used to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil samples. DPPH free radical scavenging activity, and reducing power assay were used for antioxidant activity evaluation. Similarly, egg albumin denaturation assay, protease inhibitory activities were used for anti-inflammatory activity, while genotoxicity was evaluated by using Allium cepa assay and antimicrobial activities using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assay.

Results: The GC/MS results showed that eugenol is the major component of C. zeylanicum bark (84.48%) and leaf (48.78 %) essential oil. Significant antioxidant activity was observed for both essential oils in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay (IC50= 103.2 μg/mL, bark; IC50= 234.7 μg/mL, leaf), and reducing power assay (absorbance of 1.802 nm, 0.907 nm in 48 μg/mL for bark and leaf essential oil respectively). In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity revealed strong potential of leaf essential oil (protein denaturation assay, IC50= 0.05279 μg/mL; protease inhibitory activity IC50= 3.607 μg/mL) in comparison to bark essential oil (protein denaturation assay IC50= 0.1491, protease inhibitory activity IC50= 61.06). Allium cepa root growth test, mitotic index, and chromosomal aberration test were performed to investigate the genotoxicity of C. zeylanicum bark and leaf essential oil, which resulted in no toxic nature of both the essential oils. Antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and fungal strains revealed good antimicrobial properties with the MIC value of Staphylococcus aureus at 5 μL/mL (bark), Aspergillus niger at 2.5 μL/mL (bark); Bacillus cereus at 5 μL/mL (leaf) and Aspergillus niger at 2.5 μL/mL (leaf).

Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicated the strong biological potential of both essential oils, although bark essential possesses better biological activities than the leaf essential oil and could be used in the food and beverage industries. Read now:

Article by Disease | Synthesis, Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activity of New Analogs of RC-121 Synthetic Derivatives of Somatostatin

Bentham Oncology Collection| Oncology | Cervical Cancer





Background: Based on the structure of RC-121 (D-Phe-c (Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys)-Thr-NH2, – synthetic derivatives of somatostatin), some analogs were synthesized and tested for in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity.

Objectives: The new analogs were modifyed at position 5 with Dap (diaminopropanoic acid), Dab (diaminobutanoic acid) and Orn and at position 6 with the unnatural amino acids Tle (t-leucine).

Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effects of the substances were investigated against a panel of human tumor cell lines HT-29 (Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line), MDA-MB-23 (Human Breast Cancer Cell Line), Hep G-2 (Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line) and HeLa (cervical cancer cell line). The antioxidant capacities were tested by ORAC (Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity) and HORAC (Hydroxyl Radical Averting Capacity) methods.

Results: All substances expressed significantly higher antioxidant capacity by comparison with galic acid and Trolox. All substances showed considerable antioxidant capacity as well. Compound 2T (D-Phe-c(Cys-Tyr-DTrp- Dap-Tle-Cys)-Thr-NH2)had the highest antioxidant effect. The compound 4T (D-Phe-c(Cys-Tyr-D-Trp- Orn-Tle-Cys)-Thr-NH2) displayed antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells with IC50 30 μM. The peptide analog 3T (D-Phe-c(Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Tle-Cys)-Thr-NH2) exerted the most pronounced inhibition on the cell vitality up to 53%, 56% and 65% resp. against MDA-MB-23, Hep G-2, HeLa in the higher tested concentration.

Conclusion: the somatostatin analogs showed moderate influence on the vitality of different tumor cells and could be used in changing their pathology.


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EDITOR’S CHOICE – Vigna unguiculata Trypsin Inhibitor – Current Enzyme Inhibition

Journal: Current Enzyme Inhibition

Author(s): Romana Parveen, Tooba Naz Shamsi, Sumbul Afreen, Mudsser Azam, Tasneem Fatma, Qazi Mohd. Rizwanul Haque, Sadaf Fatima*

Graphical Abstract:



Background: Trypsin Inhibitors are one of the most promising and investigated subject for their role in pharmacognostical and pharmacological studies.

Aim: The paper describes purification and characterization of trypsin inhibitor obtained from blackeyed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

Methods: The purification procedure of Vigna unguiculata trypsin inhibitor (VUTI) includes homogenization followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation. The protein thus precipitated was further dialysed and purified by ion exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. The molecular weight was determined by SDS-PAGE. The protein thus purified was characterized biochemically to demonstrate curative potential as strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent.

Results: The 15 kDa VUTI obtained showed IC50 values 490 µg/ml compared to standard which was 254µg/ml in 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Also, the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) results confirmed the highest FRAP value of 0.405 mM at 1000 µg/ml and the lowest value of 0.113 mM at 100 μg/ml which were quite comparable to ascorbic acid (standard). Anti-inflammatory activity of VUTI was depicted by the method of inhibition of albumin denaturation where, VUTI showed high IC50 value of 696.46 µg/ml. Also, VUTI showed good antibacterial potential by inhibiting all tested bacterial strains with maximum inhibition against Bacillus subtilis (99.62%) and minimum against Staphylococcus aureus (34.62%). The results were quite comparable with standard drug ampicillin (5 mg/ml). Unfortunately, VUTI failed to show any activity against fungi.

Conclusion: Thus, the results obtained depict that VUTI additionally be a wonderful candidate for development of novel antibacterial drugs, and it can also be used to reduce the deletorious effects of free radicals.

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Contributed Article: “Cannabis Phenolics And Their Bioactivities

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