Article by Disease – “Geriatric Psychopharmacology in Acute Settings”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “GERIATRIC MEDICINE

0009CPSP

Abstract:

Background: Pharmacological management of geriatric patients in acute settings is complex due to the presence of medical comorbidities, risk of drug-drug interactions, and potential patient sensitivity to side effects.

Objectives: This article will review the basic pharmacologic principles of management of older adults in acute settings.

Method: The aforementioned principles will be described and illustrated with two clinical examples. These principles include prioritizing the safety of patients and staff; obtaining a history that is as complete as possible, in order to support the working diagnosis; using the lowest medication dose that controls the symptoms; closely monitoring for side effects and drug-drug interactions; minimizing polypharmacy and discontinuing medications that are no longer necessary; double-checking all orders, so as to avoid medication errors; and involving the patients family and caregivers in treatment planning. Additionally, agents with anticholinergic properties, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics, and opioids should be used cautiously in older individuals, particularly those with dementia. Practical tips, formulations, dosages, and selected adverse effects of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers used with geriatric patients in acute settings are included.

Results: This clinical review will be useful for psychiatrists and other clinicians who treat older adults in acute medical settings.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/138957/article

Article by Disease – “Preparation and Optimization of Moxifloxacin Microspheres for Colon Targeted Delivery Using Quality by Design Approach: In Vitro and In Vivo Study”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “GASTROENTEROLOGY

002

Abstract:

Background: Gut microbiota has a significant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Colonic microflora modulation using an antibiotic might have an emerging role to treat the metabolic disorders. The present study was aimed to optimize the Moxifloxacin loaded chitosan microspheres (MCMs) by emulsion cross linking method for colon targeted delivery to alter the microflora.

Methods: Preliminary optimization of MCMs was carried out using Placket-Burman design (PBD) following by final optimization with Box-Behnken design (BBD). Optimized MCMs were evaluated for yield, particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro/ in vivo antimicrobial activities.

Results: FTIR spectroscopy of MCMs confirms the absence of chemical interactions during the formulation. MCMs were found to be smooth, spherical with particle size around 20μm. An enteric coating of MCMs prevented the drug release in the acidic environment of the stomach and ileum with complete release at the colon. MCMs had followed the korsmeyer – peppas model of drug release, indicating the drug release by non-fickian diffusion pattern. MCMs showed significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against Lactobacillus casei and Escherichia coli. In vivo results of MCMs exhibited prolonged antimicrobial effect of drug in the cecal content of rats. Significant protective activity observed in the ileum and colon histology in rats treated with MCMs compared to the pure drug.

Conclusion: MCMs were formulated by emulsion cross linking method using QBD approach. An enteric coating around the microspheres prevented the premature drug release at upper gastrointestinal tract, while chitosan cross linking has provided the sustain release of the drug in the colonic region over the time.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/142092/article 

Article by Disease – “Numerical Simulations of Tensile Tests of Red Blood Cells: Effects of the Hold Position”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “HAEMATOLOGY”

Abstract:

Tensile tests have been carried out to determine the failure strain of red blood cells. However, difficulties in reproducibly arise due to problems controlling the hold position of the cells during the test, which raises questions about the reliability of experimental data. Here, we investigate the effects of the hold position of the red blood cell on strain field during tensile testing using numerical simulations. Tensile tests were simulated in three hold positions. The results show significant variations in the deformed geometry of the red blood cell during the tensile test, as well as variations in strain distribution. Of the hold patterns examined, with an applied strain of 0.8, the misaligned stretch increased the maximum of the first principal strain by 65–85% in comparison to the aligned stretch. Although it would be ideal to precisely control the hold position and reproducibility, in practice this is not straightforward, and hence the effects of variations in the hold position should be considered when interpreting experimental data.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/138323/article

Article by Disease – “Beta-Blockers and Nitrates: Pharmacotherapy and Indications”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “CARDIOLOGY”

Abstract:

Many clinically important differences exist between beta blockers. B1-selectivity is of clinical interest because at clinically used doses, b1- selective agents block cardiac b-receptors while having minor effects on bronchial and vascular b-receptors. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents significantly decrease the frequency and duration of angina pectoris, instead the prognostic benefit of beta-blockers in stable angina has been extrapolated from studies of post myocardial infarction but has not yet been documented without left ventricular disfunction or previous myocardial infarction. Organic nitrates are among the oldest drugs, but they still remain a widely used adjuvant in the treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease. While their efficacy in relieving angina pectoris symptoms in acute settings and in preventing angina before physical or emotional stress is undisputed, the chronic use of nitrates has been associated with potentially important side effects such as tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. B-blockers are the firstline anti-anginal therapy in stable stable angina patients without contraindications, while nitrates are the secondline anti-anginal therapy. Despite 150 years of clinical practice, they remain fascinating drugs, which in a chronic setting still deserve investigation. This review evaluated pharmacotherapy and indications of Beta-blockers and nitrates in stable angina.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/127075/article

Article by Disease – “Insights into the Zinc-Dependent Deacetylase LpxC: Biochemical Properties and Inhibitor Design”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “DIABETES”

Abstract:

The bacterial enzyme UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC), catalyzing the first committed step of lipid A biosynthesis, represents a promising target in the development of novel antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria. Structure, catalytic reaction mechanism and regulation of the Zn2+-dependent metalloamidase have been intensively investigated. The enzyme is required for growth and viability of Gram-negative bacteria, displays no sequence homology with any mammalian protein, but is highly conserved in Gram-negative bacteria, thus permitting the development of Gram-negative selective antibacterial agents with limited off-target effects. Several smallmolecule LpxC inhibitors have been developed, like the substrate analog TU-514 (12a), the aryloxazoline L-161,240 (13w), the sulfonamide BB-78485 (23a), the N-aroyl-L-threonine derivative CHIR-090 (24a), the sulfone-containing pyridone LpxC-3 (43e), and the uridine-based inhibitor 1-68A (47a), displaying diverse inhibitory and antibacterial activities. Most of these compounds share a Zn2+-binding hydroxamate moiety attached to a structural element addressing the hydrophobic tunnel or the UDP binding site. The butadiynyl derivative ACHN-975 (28) is the first LpxC inhibitor entering clinical trials.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/141238/article

Article by Disease – “The Chemopreventive Peptide Lunasin Inhibits d-Galactose- Induced Experimental Cataract in Rats”

ARTICLE BY DISEASE “OPHTHALMOLOGY”

Abstract:

Oxidative damage to the constituents of the eye lens is a major mechanism in the initiation and development of cataract. Lunasin, a 43-amino acids chemoprevention peptide, has been proved to possess potent anti-oxidative activity other than its established anticancer activities. Herein, we explored whether lunasin has preventative effects on d-galactose-induced experimental cataract in rat. After modeling, SD rats were administrated by instillation, 80 M of lunasin eye drops to each eye thrice daily and consecutively for 30 days. As a result, lunasin treatment effectively inhibited the progression of d-galactose-induced experimental cataract, and protected the lenses of rats from oxidative damage and attenuated the lipid peroxidation through up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and inhibited the activation of polyol pathway by decreasing AR activity. Additionally, in vitro studies proved that lunasin treatment could protect human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) against d-galactose induced cell damage and apoptosis, and up-regulate antioxidant enzymes. This is the first demonstration that lunasin could inhibit d-galactose-induced experimental cataract in rats by protecting against oxidative damage and inhibiting the activation of polyol pathway.

Read more: http://benthamscience.com/journals/protein-and-peptide-letters/volume/23/issue/7/page/619/

Article by Disease – “Synthesis and Characterization of Anthracene Functionalized Novel Fluorescent Amino Acids: Interactions of the Fluorescent Amino Acids with Metal Ions”

Article by Disease “Hemophilia”

13

Abstract:

Anthracene based amino acids are synthesized as a new class of fluorescence sensors for the detection of metal ions. Synthesized amino acids were characterized with 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and LCMS spectroscopy. The electro- and photo-luminescent spectra of the fluorescent amino acids were studied and the interaction of 18b with metal ions was discussed. Among various metal ions screened, the fluorescence of the amino acid was quenched with Fe3+ion more selectively and efficiently.

Read more: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-organic-synthesis/volume/13/issue/4/page/646/ 

Article by Disease – “Role of Galectins in Allergic Disorders”

Article by Disease on “Allergy”

Abstract:

Background: Allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy; with antihistamines, anti-leukotrienes, corticosteroids and bronchodilatorsas well as monoclonal antibodies; and allergen specific immunotherapy stand as confirmed approaches for the management of allergic disorders as asthma, allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergies and anaphylaxis. Galectins are members of animal lectin protein family, with binding specificity for β-galactoside sugars. These highly conserved proteins are known to be expressed in various effector cells of the immune system, exert immuno-regulatory activities, and enroll in tissue inflammation and regulation of immune homeostasis.

Objective: This review aims to explain the galectin family and influence of galectins in the immune mechanisms of allergic disorders.

Results: Galectins have multiple roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Intense research in the field of immunology related with galectins have given rise to several patent applications. Those, increasing in vivo efficacy of galectins for therapeutic applications, utilizing galectins for immune stimulation and prolongation of immune responses, utilization of them as disease markers are pioneers. As immune cells can be targeted by galectins, cells containing these molecules can be used for immune intervention. Regulation of cytokine productions by immune cells as IL-1β and IL-10 as well as dendritic cell functions by galectins may be efficient in limitation of some immune-mediated disorders.

Conclusion: Taken all together, better learning of galectin biology together with detailed revealing of galectin-immune system interactions have great potential for immune interventions targeting allergy-related disorders.

Read more: http://benthamscience.com/journals/recent-patents-on-inflammation-and-allergy-drug-discovery/volume/10/issue/1/page/2/

Article by Disease – “Neurogenomic Pathway of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Linking Germline and Somatic Mutations to Genetic-Environmental Interactions”

Article by Disease on “Genetic Diseases”

abd

Abstract:

Bioinformatic approaches have been extensively applied in genetic and genomic studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, since this disorder has a distinct albeit complex genetic etiology, these studies have generated data sets requiring additional empirical and theoretical evaluations of molecular and cellular pathway. Additionally, genetic-environmental interactions in ASD are poorly understood. To prioritize genomic variations, molecular/cellular processes and environmental factors, systems biology approaches should be applied. Here, we present a molecular cytogenomic and somatic genomic view on a possible “ASD pathway” to address genetic-environmental interactions in ASD. Taking into account the relevance of these considerations for brain diseases, as a whole, we propose a multi-hit hypothesis to explain the complex nature of interactions between germline mutations, somatic genomic variations (i.e. aneuploidy, genome and chromosome instability) and environment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Using different bioinformatic methods for gene prioritization and analyzing candidate processes for brain dysfunction, it becomes possible to place personalized genomic data in a systems (neuro)biology context. Multidimensional omics data is, therefore, a target for advanced bioinformatics studies, which are able to clarify the biological mechanisms of specific genetic changes in ASD and to enhance the potential for new therapeutic concepts.

Read more: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-bioinformatics/volume/12/issue/1/page/19/ 

Article by Disease – “Cranberry for Urinary Tract Infection: From Bench to Bedside”

Article by Disease on “Urology”

Abstract

Urinary tract infections are common infectious diseases which can occur in any part of the urinary tract such as bladder, kidney, ureters, and urethra. They are commonly caused by bacteria that enter through the urethra. Urinary tract infections commonly develop in the bladder and spread to renal tissues. Up to now, there are different antimicrobial agents which have beneficial role on urinary tract infections. However, most of them cause different adverse effects and therefore, much attention has been paid to the search for effective therapeutic agents with negligible adverse effects. Cranberry is known as one of the most important edible plants, which possesses potent antimicrobial effects against the bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections. Growing evidence has shown that cranberry suppresses urinary tract infections and eradicates the bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to critically review the available literature regarding the antimicrobial activities of cranberry against urinary tract infection microorganisms. In addition, we discuss etiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and current drugs of urinary tract infections to provide a more complete picture of this disease.

Read more: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-topics-in-medicinal-chemistry/volume/17/issue/3/page/331/