Bentham Science Central Nervous System Collection



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and many more Books…

✔ 130 Journals

✔ 7 Book Series

✔ 45 Books in Total 



♦ Access to over 11,000 scholarly articles covering several aspects of Central Nervous System

♦ Contents come from more than 100 Bentham Science Journals (40 journals indexed in JCR 2017 with impact factor rankings)

♦ Includes both; Original Research and Review Articles

♦ Research from leading institutions in USA, EUROPE, AUSTRALIA, JAPAN, CHINA and other regions

♦ Suitable for researchers in industry and academia wishing to keep updated with latest developments

♦ Easy access to institutions and individuals through IP-based authentication

♦ Access new Neuroscience Research included in this collection as soon as it is published



 Over 950 articles from 2018
 Over 2,764 articles from the last 3 years 
 More than 9,000 articles from the last 10 years


Annual addition of over 1,000 new Central Nervous System related articles each year

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Article by Disease | Electrochemical Determination of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs



Electrochemical methods have been used for the determination of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) just as used in the determination of various drugs. Among voltammetric methods; differential pulse voltammetric method, square wave voltammetric method and linear sweep voltammetric method are the most commonly used ones. NSAIDs are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as musculoskeletal disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, acute gouty arthritis) and dental pain, menstrual pain, postoperative pain and migraine. In this review, some selected recent electrochemical studies were selected related to the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug analyzes. The aim of this review is to evaluate and discuss the advantages, details and usages of electroanalytical methods in the determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Read out more at:



Article by Disease | Notch Signaling in Normal and Disease States: Possible Therapies Related to Glycosylation


Bentham Cardiovascular Disorders Collection | Alagille Syndrome





The Notch signaling pathway is involved in a wide variety of highly conserved developmental processes in mammals. Importantly, mutations of the Notch protein and components of its signaling pathway have been implicated in an array of human diseases (T-cell leukemia and other cancers, Multiple Sclerosis, CADASIL, Alagille Syndrome, Spondylocostal Dysostosis). In mammals, Notch becomes activated upon binding of its extracellular domain to ligands (Delta and Jagged/Serrate) that are present on the surface of apposed cells. The extracellular domain of Notch contains up to 36 tandem Epidermal Growth Factor-like (EGF) repeats. Many of these EGF repeats are modified at evolutionarily-conserved consensus sites by an unusual form of O-glycosylation called O-fucose. Work from several groups indicates that O-fucosylation plays an important role in ligand mediated Notch signaling. Recent evidence also suggests that the enzyme responsible for addition of O-fucose to Notch, protein O-fucosyltransferase-1 (POFUT1), may serve a quality control function in the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, some of the O-fucose moieties are further elongated by the action of members of the Fringe family of β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases. The alteration in O-fucose saccharide structure caused by Fringe modulates the response of Notch to its ligands. Thus, glycosylation serves an important role in regulating Notch activity. This review focuses on the role of glycosylation in the normal functioning of the Notch pathway. As well, potential roles for glycosylation in Notch-related human diseases, and possible roles for therapeutic targeting of POFUT1 and Fringe in Notch-related human diseases, are discussed.


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Article by Disease | Synthesis, Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activity of New Analogs of RC-121 Synthetic Derivatives of Somatostatin

Bentham Oncology Collection| Oncology | Cervical Cancer





Background: Based on the structure of RC-121 (D-Phe-c (Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys)-Thr-NH2, – synthetic derivatives of somatostatin), some analogs were synthesized and tested for in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity.

Objectives: The new analogs were modifyed at position 5 with Dap (diaminopropanoic acid), Dab (diaminobutanoic acid) and Orn and at position 6 with the unnatural amino acids Tle (t-leucine).

Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effects of the substances were investigated against a panel of human tumor cell lines HT-29 (Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line), MDA-MB-23 (Human Breast Cancer Cell Line), Hep G-2 (Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line) and HeLa (cervical cancer cell line). The antioxidant capacities were tested by ORAC (Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity) and HORAC (Hydroxyl Radical Averting Capacity) methods.

Results: All substances expressed significantly higher antioxidant capacity by comparison with galic acid and Trolox. All substances showed considerable antioxidant capacity as well. Compound 2T (D-Phe-c(Cys-Tyr-DTrp- Dap-Tle-Cys)-Thr-NH2)had the highest antioxidant effect. The compound 4T (D-Phe-c(Cys-Tyr-D-Trp- Orn-Tle-Cys)-Thr-NH2) displayed antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells with IC50 30 μM. The peptide analog 3T (D-Phe-c(Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Tle-Cys)-Thr-NH2) exerted the most pronounced inhibition on the cell vitality up to 53%, 56% and 65% resp. against MDA-MB-23, Hep G-2, HeLa in the higher tested concentration.

Conclusion: the somatostatin analogs showed moderate influence on the vitality of different tumor cells and could be used in changing their pathology.


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Article by Disease | New Medical Strategies for Midgut Carcinoids

Bentham Oncology Collection | Oncology | CARCINOID TUMOURS


Patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract often present with metastases and hormonal symptoms. These patients can be palliated by interventional tumour reduction and medical treatment with somatostatin analogues; no effective chemotherapy is available. Radionuclide therapy via somatostatin receptors is one new therapeutic alternative. The recognition that neuroendocrine tumours express specific receptors for growth factors and chemokines, which are of importance for tumour growth, vascularization, and spread, may open the way for new therapeutic approaches. The signalling pathways in carcinoid tumours are incompletely explored. This review summarizes potential new treatment strategies from clinical and experimental studies, e.g. inhibition of angiogenesis, targeting of growth factors or their receptors by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, interference with specific cellular pathways (mTOR, PI3K, RAS/RAF, Notch), and also inhibition of the proteasome and histone deacetylation. Combining targeted therapy with chemotherapy, or using drugs to sensitize for radionuclide therapy, may enhance the treatment outcome.


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Article by Disease |Study about How A Sample of Portuguese People Perceive the Health Benefits of Dietary Fibre

Bentham Oncology Collection | Oncology | Bowel Cancer


Graphical Abstract:



Background: Dietary Fibre (DF) has been part of human diet since ever, and its benefits for the human health have been well established and scientifically confirmed. However, it is important to study to what extent people are aware of those benefits.

Objective: Having in mind the importance of DF the present work was undertaken to study the level of knowledge of people residing in Portugal about the health effects related to DF.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken on a non-probabilistic sample of 382 adult participants. Descriptive statistics were used together with some inferential tests, all using the software SPSS and considering a level of significance of 5%.
Results: The results allowed concluding that people were differently informed about the effects of DF in preventing and/or treating various diseases, being constipation the most recognized, followed in decreasing order by obesity, bowel cancer, cholesterol, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and breast cancer. The results also showed that significant differences were encountered between age groups for most of the diseases evaluated, but not between genders, levels of education or living environments.
Conclusion: Generally, it was concluded that the participants in this study were relatively well informed about the roles of DF in preventing and/or treating several diseases.

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Article by Disease | Design and Characterization of Mucoadhesive Gelatin-Ethylcellulose Microparticles for the Delivery of Curcumin to the Bladder

Bentham Oncology Collection | Oncology | Bladder Cancer 


Graphical Abstract:



Background: Bladder cancer is the second type of malignant carcinoma of the urinary tract. The treatment is time-consuming and requires maintenance doses of the drug for long period of time with important side effects. Curcumin has shown evident clinical advances in the treatment of cancer. The technology of microencapsulation and the use of mucoadhesive materials can contribute to modify the delivery and improve the bioavailability of curcumin.

Objective: The aim of this study was to design and characterize mucoadhesive microparticles containing curcumin using multivariate analysis and the spray-drying technique.

Methods: A factorial design 32+1 was employed to investigate the influence of gelatin, ethylcellulose, and curcumin on size, polydispersity index, drug content and entrapment efficiency. Microparticles were also evaluated by ATR-FTIR, X-ray diffraction, antioxidant activity, in-vitro release profile, exvivo mucoadhesion performance, and in-vitro cytotoxicity.

Results: Microparticles showed non-uniform surface, mean diameter from 2.73 µm to 4.62 µm and polydispersity index from 0.72 to 1.09, according to the different combinations of the independent factors. These independent variables also had a significant effect on the drug content. The highest values of drug trapping efficiency were obtained with the highest concentration of curcumin and polymers. Formulations displayed slow drug release and important antioxidant activity. The good mucoadhesive performance of microparticles was assessed by the falling film technique. Moreover, the formulations did not display in vitro toxicity against Artemia salina and Fibroblasts LM(TK).

Conclusion: The design results were useful for developing of curcumin dosage form with good physicochemical characteristics and mucoadhesive properties for the bladder administration.


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Article by Disease | Signal Transduction through JAK-STAT and NF-κB Regulated Pim-1 Kinase: Novel Target for Anticancer Leads

Bentham Oncology Collection | Oncology | Bladder Cancer 


Graphical Abstract:




Background: Signal transduction is a process where a chemical or physical signal is transmitted from extracellular to the intracellular nuclear matrix as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation which ultimately result in a response. At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and posttranslational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location. These molecular events are the basic mechanisms of controlling cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and many other processes. In multi-cellular organisms, signal transduction pathways evolve to regulate cell communication in various ways. One of the important signal transduction occurs through JAK-STAT and NF-κB regulated Pim-1 kinase expression.

Methods: Major pathways such as JAK-STAT and NF-κB signaling are involved as the targets of Pim-1 kinase activities including cell cycle progression, mitotic cell division, oncogenic transcription, apoptosis and metastatic invasion. There are three target points in JAK –STAT systems including the inhibition of activated JAK via phosphorylation, STAT –STAT dimerization and the entry of activated STAT components for nuclear binding. NF-κB signaling is regulated by IKK enzyme proteasomal degradation and translocation of activated NF-κB complex into nuclear domain for DNA transcription and cellular expression. A number of inhibitors were designed to inhibit these major drug target points of activated JAK-STAT and NF-kB signaling cascades.

Results: Pim denotes Proviral insertion in murine. It was reported that a wide range of human cancers including bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer and hematological malignancies such as leukemia and lymphomas form due to over-expression of PIM1 via JAK-STAT and NF-κB signaling cascades. An attempt has been made in the present review to focus various potent inhibitors for the inhibition of JAK-STAT and NF-κB signaling targets. These inhibitors are in clinical trials or to be progressed in the clinical investigation.

Conclusion: Incorrect regulation of cytokine-mediated activation of JAK-STAT and NF-κB produces abnormal expression of Pim -1 kinase and solid cancer. Phosphorylated JAKs can induce transcription of target genes and NF-κB acts as a regulator of a gene that can control cell proliferation and cell survival. Therefore, JAK-STAT and NF- κB regulated Pim-1 kinase is a novel target for anticancer leads and these leads can be used to design a template as an anticancer agent. Further clinical studies can be carried out to discover new novel congeneric entities.


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Article by Disease | An Overview of Targeted Alpha Therapy with 225Actinium and 213Bismuth

Bentham Oncology Collection | Oncology Bladder Cancer 


Graphical Abstract:



Background: Recent reports of the remarkable therapeutic efficacy of 225Ac-labeled PSMA- 617 for therapy of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer have underlined the clinical potential of targeted alpha therapy.

Objective and Conclusion: This review describes methods for the production of 225Ac and its daughter nuclide 213Bi and summarizes the current clinical experience with both alpha emitters with particular focus on recent studies of targeted alpha therapy of bladder cancer, brain tumors, neuroendocrine tumors and prostate cancer.



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Article by Disease | Ultrasonography Fused with PET-CT Hybrid Imaging

Bentham Oncology Collection | Oncology | Anal Cancer


We present a method with fusion of images of three modalities 18F-FDG PET, CT, and 3-D ultrasound (US) applied to imaging of the anal canal and the rectum. To obtain comparable geometries in the three imaging modalities, a plexiglas rod, with the same dimensions as the US transducer, is placed in the anal canal prior to the PET-CT examination. The method is based on manual co-registration of PET-CT images and 3-D US images. The three-modality imaging of the rectum-anal canal may become useful as a supplement to conventional imaging in the external radiation therapy in the treatment of anal cancer, where the precise delineation of a tumor is crucial to avoid damage from radiation therapy to the healthy tissue surrounding it. The technique is still in a phase of development, and the demands for integration different company software systems are significant before commercial application. Three-modality imaging may also be used in certain other diagnostic or therapeutic fields.



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