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Bentham Oncology Collection| Oncology | Cervical Cancer
Background: Based on the structure of RC-121 (D-Phe-c (Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys)-Thr-NH2, – synthetic derivatives of somatostatin), some analogs were synthesized and tested for in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity.
Objectives: The new analogs were modifyed at position 5 with Dap (diaminopropanoic acid), Dab (diaminobutanoic acid) and Orn and at position 6 with the unnatural amino acids Tle (t-leucine).
Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effects of the substances were investigated against a panel of human tumor cell lines HT-29 (Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line), MDA-MB-23 (Human Breast Cancer Cell Line), Hep G-2 (Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line) and HeLa (cervical cancer cell line). The antioxidant capacities were tested by ORAC (Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity) and HORAC (Hydroxyl Radical Averting Capacity) methods.
Results: All substances expressed significantly higher antioxidant capacity by comparison with galic acid and Trolox. All substances showed considerable antioxidant capacity as well. Compound 2T (D-Phe-c(Cys-Tyr-DTrp- Dap-Tle-Cys)-Thr-NH2)had the highest antioxidant effect. The compound 4T (D-Phe-c(Cys-Tyr-D-Trp- Orn-Tle-Cys)-Thr-NH2) displayed antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells with IC50 30 μM. The peptide analog 3T (D-Phe-c(Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Tle-Cys)-Thr-NH2) exerted the most pronounced inhibition on the cell vitality up to 53%, 56% and 65% resp. against MDA-MB-23, Hep G-2, HeLa in the higher tested concentration.
Conclusion: the somatostatin analogs showed moderate influence on the vitality of different tumor cells and could be used in changing their pathology.
Bentham Oncology Collection | Oncology | Bowel Cancer
Background: Dietary Fibre (DF) has been part of human diet since ever, and its benefits for the human health have been well established and scientifically confirmed. However, it is important to study to what extent people are aware of those benefits.
Objective: Having in mind the importance of DF the present work was undertaken to study the level of knowledge of people residing in Portugal about the health effects related to DF.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken on a non-probabilistic sample of 382 adult participants. Descriptive statistics were used together with some inferential tests, all using the software SPSS and considering a level of significance of 5%.
Results: The results allowed concluding that people were differently informed about the effects of DF in preventing and/or treating various diseases, being constipation the most recognized, followed in decreasing order by obesity, bowel cancer, cholesterol, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and breast cancer. The results also showed that significant differences were encountered between age groups for most of the diseases evaluated, but not between genders, levels of education or living environments.
Conclusion: Generally, it was concluded that the participants in this study were relatively well informed about the roles of DF in preventing and/or treating several diseases.
Bentham Oncology Collection | Oncology | Carcinoid Tumours
Patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract often present with metastases and hormonal symptoms. These patients can be palliated by interventional tumour reduction and medical treatment with somatostatin analogues; no effective chemotherapy is available. Radionuclide therapy via somatostatin receptors is one new therapeutic alternative. The recognition that neuroendocrine tumours express specific receptors for growth factors and chemokines, which are of importance for tumour growth, vascularization, and spread, may open the way for new therapeutic approaches. The signalling pathways in carcinoid tumours are incompletely explored. This review summarizes potential new treatment strategies from clinical and experimental studies, e.g. inhibition of angiogenesis, targeting of growth factors or their receptors by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, interference with specific cellular pathways (mTOR, PI3K, RAS/RAF, Notch), and also inhibition of the proteasome and histone deacetylation. Combining targeted therapy with chemotherapy, or using drugs to sensitize for radionuclide therapy, may enhance the treatment outcome.