Marine ecosystems offer several benefits to human communities. To make sustainable use of these benefits, it is necessary to elucidate and conserve marine ecology, and strive to maintain a sustainable natural resource management program. For this reason, understanding the diversity and behavior of both macro-ecosystems and micro-ecosystems are crucial.
Monitoring Artificial Materials and Microbes in Marine Ecosystems explores microbial roles and their interaction with artificial materials in marine environments. After starting with simple topics for beginners, chapters explore methods to detect microorganisms in marine ecosystems and interactions of marine organisms with artificial materials. The sequential progression into advanced topics makes it easier to understand how to solve the reduction in marine-ecosystem viability caused by adverse events. Readers are provided with useful information for rehabilitating marine environments to make them sustainable for communities.
Topics such as marine ecosystems and environmental monitoring assessment, methods to detect microorganisms (viruses and bacteria) and evaluate marine environments, interactions between artificial metallic materials and microorganisms in marine environments has been discussed comprehensively.
This book is intended primarily for marine ecologists, microbiologists, environmental engineers, and engineers associated with industrial projects. This book is also useful as a text for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in marine biology, ecology, and microbiology.
About the Editor:
Dr. Toshiyuki Takahashi received his Ph.D. in Biological Science from Hiroshima University (Hiroshima, Japan). He worked as a Researcher at Time Associate Co., Ltd. (Japan), as an Assistant Professor at Keio University (Yokohama, Japan), and as Assistant Professor and as a full-time lecturer at the Miyakonojo National College of Technology (Miyazaki, Japan). Currently, he is an Associate Professor of the Department of Chemical Science and Engineering of the National Institute of Technology (KOSEN), Miyokonolo College, Japan. Dr. Takahashi has specifically researched the cross-interaction in symbiosis between host cells and algal symbionts. He has also focused on technological developments using microbes and microalgae. He has published several peer-reviewed publications and chapters of scientific books and has been honored with a number of awards and certificates for his researches. Read full Press Release to find out more: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-02/bsp-mem021920.php
All living organisms face two major challenges: to adjust to constantly changing environment and to protect themselves from pathogens. How organisms integrate responses to these challenges is the subject of this book. Cellular machinery can function properly only in a narrow range of condition. The same is true for multicellular organisms. When conditions deviate from the acceptable range, that creates stress and requires change. Physical stress can be caused by starvation, heat, cold, irradiation, and other factors. In addition, higher animals can experience mental stress caused by fear, neglect, isolation etc. Stress response is a set of measures that preserve homeostasis in the face of environmental changes. Pathogens are another challenge for most life forms. Viruses and mobile genetic elements infect all organisms. Multicellular organisms can also be infected by bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens. These subjects are presented in the first two chapters of the book.
The next section presents the elaborate mechanisms of stress and immune responses in bacteria and archaea. A common response to stress in prokaryotes includes, among other means, switching to an alternative transcriptional mode. Prokaryotic immunodefense mechanisms are built on two strategies that are also conserved in eukaryotes. One is innate immunity based on genetically encoded molecules/receptors. The other — adaptive immunity is based on unique molecules/receptors that are created de novo in response to infection.
Eukaryotic stress response is discussed next. Global inhibition of translation, called integrated stress response, is a common reaction to many stresses in eukaryotic cells. In multicellular organisms, most individual cells have autonomous immunodefense mechanisms which function in collaboration with stress response. Some stress responses can participate in immunodefense. A notable example is unfolded protein response. It cleanses the cell of misfolded proteins plus also targets viral proteins because of their difference from cellular proteins. In animals, cellular stress response can trigger cytokine production and systemic response, which includes inflammation and engagement of specialised immune systems. Even subtle changes in homeostasis can activate such a response. The incredible sensitivity of cellular machinery to changes has a dark side; stress and ensuing immune mechanisms such as inflammation and complement can be induced without infection or substantial injury and lead to pathology.
In complex organisms with specialised immune systems, discussed next, the relationship between stress and immunity becomes more complex and sometimes antagonistic. Mental stress can cause activation of immune mechanisms, which, in turn, can affect the brain’s functioning, and behavior. In the recent decade, science has discovered the paramount importance of interaction of all levels of stress response with immunity in the etiology of many human diseases from atherosclerosis to Alzheimer’s. Read out the full version here
Department of Molecular,
Cell & Developmental Biology,
University of California, Los Angeles CA,
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