EDITOR’S CHOICE – Coping with Stress During Aging – Current Neuropharmacology

Journal: Current Neuropharmacology

Author(s): P. Sampedro-Piquero*, P. Alvarez-Suarez, A. Begega

Graphical Abstract:



Background: Resilience is the ability to achieve a positive outcome when we are in the face of adversity. It supposes an active resistance to adversity by coping mechanisms in which genetic, molecular, neural and environmental factors are involved. Resilience has been usually studied in early ages and few is known about it during aging.

Methods: In this review, we will address the age-related changes in the brain mechanisms involved in regulating the stress response. Furthermore, using the EE paradigm, we analyse the resilient potential of this intervention and its neurobiological basis. In this case, we will focus on identifying the characteristics of a resilient brain (modifications in HPA structure and function, neurogenesis, specific neuron types, glia, neurotrophic factors, nitric oxide synthase or microRNAs, among others).

Results: The evidence suggests that a healthy lifestyle has a crucial role to promote a resilient brain during aging. Along with the behavioral changes described, a better regulation of HPA axis, enhanced levels of postmitotic type-3 cells or changes in GABAergic neurotransmission are some of the brain mechanisms involved in resilience.

Conclusion: Future research should identify different biomarkers that increase the resistance to develop mood disorders and based on this knowledge, develop new potential therapeutic targets.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/155614/article


EDITOR’S CHOICE – Environment and Neurodegenerative Diseases – MicroRNA

Journal: MicroRNA 

Author(s): Margherita Ferrante*, Gea Oliveri Conti

Graphical Abstract:



Introduction: The importance of neurodegenerative diseases on the management of public health is growing and the real role of the environment and miRNA in their occurrence is still unclear. miRNA can significantly affect the regulatory network. The complex variety and gene-regulatory capacity of miRNAs are particularly valuable in the brain, being a very complex organ with a functional specialization of neurons highly adaptable to environmental stimuli. In particular, an miRNAs role is demonstrated in neurological diseases as an effect to toxic and mutagenic substances exposure by the environment.

Objective: The focus was on the three most important neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer, Parkinson and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Materials and Methods: A brief critical review on scientific papers of the last ten years using PuBMED, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane databases was carried out.

Results: Several studies have shown that miRNAs may contribute to neurodegeneration process in response to environmental risks. The miRNAs are known to play a dynamic role in many biochemical pathways of mammalian’s brain, including neuroplasticity, stress responses, cellular signaling, etc. miRNAs have a role in neurodegenerative phenotype of AD, PD and ALS.

The environmental chemicals such as metals and pesticides and then behavior can cause miRNA alterations via increasing oxidative stress and/or triggering inflammatory responses.

Conclusion: A discussion with theoretical and possible future research directions is provided and it is clear that the need is not only of longitudinal population studies and of better knowledge of epigenetics markers but, especially, of environmental policy interventions based on the green economy.


Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/154912


Top Foods for Your Brain

What you eat doesn’t just affect your physical health, but also your brain and memory. Here are some amazing foods that you can eat to boost your brainpower and memory.

brain foods 2

Whole Grains

The brain obtains its energy in the form of glucose which is derived from carbohydrates. Our brains need energy to focus and concentrate which it gets from carbohydrates. Healthy ways to acquire complex carbohydrates with low Glycemic Index (GI) is to eat whole-wheat products, granary bread, bulgur, oats, beans, wild rice, barley, and soy.


The most useful omega-3 fats are found naturally in fish as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Salmon, trout, mackerel, herring, sardines, pilchards and kippers all contain EPA and DHA. Low DHA levels can cause dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and memory loss whereas adequate levels of EPA and DHA can assist in lower stress and aid in the production of serontin, the feel good chemical.

Green Leafy Vegetables

Now we know why Popeye liked spinach so much. Green leafy vegetables such as spinach, turnip, kale, romaine, collard greens, mustard greens, and broccoli contain a lot of folic acid and healthy vitamins. Shortages in folate and B vitamins are believed to aggravate depression, lethargy and sleeplessness. So, have green leafy vegetables in order to have a healthy brain.


Latest research has shown that berries such as blueberries, strawberries, and acai berries contain antioxidants and other phytochemicals and have been shown to improve learning, reasoning, and recollection. They may also stop mental deterioration in its track by preserving the brain’s natural mechanism. They also aid in averting memory loss which comes with age.

So enjoy these healthy foods and sustain a strong brain!

Editor’s Choice – Differences in Relative Levels of 88 microRNAs in Various Regions of the Normal Adult Human Brain – MicroRNA

Journal: MicroRNA

Author(s): Elena V. Filatova, Anelya Alieva, Maria I. Shadrina, Petr A. Slominsky.

Graphical Abstract:



Aim of Study: Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the 1990s, our knowledge about their biology has grown considerably. The increasing number of studies addressing the role of miRNAs in development and in various diseases emphasizes the need for a comprehensive catalogue of accurate sequence, expression and conservation information regarding the large number of miRNAs proposed recently in all organs and tissues. The objective of this study was to provide data on the levels of miRNA expression in 15 tissues of the normal human brain.

Materials and Methods: We conducted an analysis of the relative levels of 88 of the most abundantly expressed and best characterized miRNA derived postmortem from well-characterized samples of various regions of the brains from five normal individuals.

Results: The cluster analysis revealed some differences in the relative levels of these miRNAs among the brain regions studied. Such diversity can be explained by different functioning of these brain regions.
Conclusion: We hope that the data from the current study are a resource that will be useful to our colleagues in this exciting field, as more hypotheses will be generated and tested with regard to small noncoding RNA in the human brain in healthy and disease states.


Most Accessed Article – Nanosized Drug Delivery Systems for Direct Nose to Brain Targeting – Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation

Journal: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation

Author(s): Kunjan Phukan, Marika Nandy, Rupanjali B. Sharma, Hemanta K. Sharma.

Graphical Abstract:



Background: Drug targeting to brain has always been problematic due to Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB), which, does not allow most of the drugs to pass through it as they are hydrophilic and macromolecular drugs. So, in order to bypass the BBB, alternative modes of administration were searched and nasal to brain delivery route was tried by many workers. Such studies yielded patented nano-formulations with the ability to cross blood brain barrier.

Methods: Nanoparticles being smaller in size and large surface area help in increasing the rate of drug permeation to the brain. In this review work, emphasis has been laid on discussion on various works done in the field of nasal delivery of drugs to brain over the last decade.

Results: The works that are discussed in this paper show better drug targeting of brain when given through nasal route as nanoparticles. Experiments performed in animal models have clearly exhibited that nano-sized formulations are able to facilitate the delivery of drugs to brain through nose in comparison to tantamount drug solutions.

Conclusion: However, it is not yet confirmed whether the drug is freed from the formulation in the nasal cavity and then absorbed or the nanoparticles themselves are absorbed and then the drug is released in the CNS. Furthermore, the toxicity studies were not carried out extensively in suitably designed model, which should be considered before going for further studies and application.

To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/140558

Food Enhances Intelligence!

We have always known the fact that food is essential for keeping us alive and healthy. But this is a general statement, so the scientists have been on the mission to understand how food keeps us healthy – both physically and mentally. Keeping our focus on mental health we need to understand how food and nutrition keeps our brain healthy.


Recently, scientists from the University of Illinois studied the Mediterranean diet and found out that the oils and nuts carry nutrients that are very good for the brain. The dorsal networks in the brain is the key area concerned with intelligence and cognitive thinking. The Mediterranean diet includes nutrients called monounsaturated fatty acids MUFAs that the researchers found, were responsible for building the networks and enhancing thinking abilities.

The study is just the beginning and has loads to offer for scientists as they progress in this direction.

To read the latest research articles on neurology, visit: http://benthamscience.com/browse-by-subject/medicine/#ANCHSC34

Article by Disease – “Neurogenomic Pathway of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Linking Germline and Somatic Mutations to Genetic-Environmental Interactions”

Article by Disease on “Genetic Diseases”



Bioinformatic approaches have been extensively applied in genetic and genomic studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, since this disorder has a distinct albeit complex genetic etiology, these studies have generated data sets requiring additional empirical and theoretical evaluations of molecular and cellular pathway. Additionally, genetic-environmental interactions in ASD are poorly understood. To prioritize genomic variations, molecular/cellular processes and environmental factors, systems biology approaches should be applied. Here, we present a molecular cytogenomic and somatic genomic view on a possible “ASD pathway” to address genetic-environmental interactions in ASD. Taking into account the relevance of these considerations for brain diseases, as a whole, we propose a multi-hit hypothesis to explain the complex nature of interactions between germline mutations, somatic genomic variations (i.e. aneuploidy, genome and chromosome instability) and environment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Using different bioinformatic methods for gene prioritization and analyzing candidate processes for brain dysfunction, it becomes possible to place personalized genomic data in a systems (neuro)biology context. Multidimensional omics data is, therefore, a target for advanced bioinformatics studies, which are able to clarify the biological mechanisms of specific genetic changes in ASD and to enhance the potential for new therapeutic concepts.

Read more: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-bioinformatics/volume/12/issue/1/page/19/ 

Cellphones Hazardous for Brain

In this era of globalization, use of cellphones has become essential. For better or worse it has become an intrinsic part of modern life and culture. Keeping in contact with friends and family has become easier because of mobile phones. Business in this modern era could not survive without the use of mobile phone. It has become the source for any kind of information. Despite all the advantages cellphones are dangerous for health.


Cells in brain communicate through electrical impulses which travel throughout the body and carry messages to other cells and receptors.  These electrical impulses can be detected by Electroencephalogram (EEG) test. It is a test that records electrical patterns of brain. In recent year researchers from Netherlands conducted a study on mobile phone and found that radiation of dialing mobile phone is electrically detected by the brain. In the study, 31 healthy females were selected and were exposed to a 3G mobile phone for fifteen minutes. Their EEG activity was measured and change in brain activity was noted after radiation peaks. This study is not the only study that showed change in brain activity as a result of acute exposure to cellphone. Many other studies that were conducted in past years showed similar results.

This shows that brain of an individual is sensitive to cellphone radiation. Long term use of cellphone can increase risk of brain cancer due to which the World Health Organization also categorized radiation of mobile phone as a “possible human carcinogen”.

Blog ::: Brain Changes in Young American Football Players

In recent years many studies have been conducted and reports have emerged about the risks of brain injury caused by playing physical sports and also about their impact on development of the brain in the players. However, most researches are about the changes occurring in the players’ brain as a result of concussions, but few focus specifically on players who have never experienced concussions.


In one such study the research team headed by Christopher T. Whitlow, M.D., Ph.D., M.H.A., associate professor and chief of neuroradiology at Wake Forest School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, N.C., studied 25 young male football players to assess the brain changes after a season of football. Players who were chosen had no signs or symptoms of concussion. With the help of Head Impact Telemetry System (which is an advancement in MRI), data were recorded and analyzed to determine the risk weighted cumulative exposure associated with head impacts caused in a single season of play.

Using modern techniques, players’ brain images were taken before and after the season and it was revealed that there were changes in the white matter of the brains due to impacts during the games. To simplify, the research showed that the flow of water through the neural networks was not uniform. This is hard to tell if the changes are permanent right now and also what implications these changes may have. The research team suggests that time will answer how the players will have their brains function and age.

Bentham Open Access Article

The article entitled Interactions Between Nanosized Materials and the Brain in the journal Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2014, 21, 4200-4214 is now open for all to view and access
For article Information, please visit: http://eurekaselect.com/123421
For journal information, please visit: http://bit.ly/1tJyNUy