Food Enhances Intelligence!

We have always known the fact that food is essential for keeping us alive and healthy. But this is a general statement, so the scientists have been on the mission to understand how food keeps us healthy – both physically and mentally. Keeping our focus on mental health we need to understand how food and nutrition keeps our brain healthy.


Recently, scientists from the University of Illinois studied the Mediterranean diet and found out that the oils and nuts carry nutrients that are very good for the brain. The dorsal networks in the brain is the key area concerned with intelligence and cognitive thinking. The Mediterranean diet includes nutrients called monounsaturated fatty acids MUFAs that the researchers found, were responsible for building the networks and enhancing thinking abilities.

The study is just the beginning and has loads to offer for scientists as they progress in this direction.

To read the latest research articles on neurology, visit:

Article by Disease – “Neurogenomic Pathway of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Linking Germline and Somatic Mutations to Genetic-Environmental Interactions”

Article by Disease on “Genetic Diseases”



Bioinformatic approaches have been extensively applied in genetic and genomic studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, since this disorder has a distinct albeit complex genetic etiology, these studies have generated data sets requiring additional empirical and theoretical evaluations of molecular and cellular pathway. Additionally, genetic-environmental interactions in ASD are poorly understood. To prioritize genomic variations, molecular/cellular processes and environmental factors, systems biology approaches should be applied. Here, we present a molecular cytogenomic and somatic genomic view on a possible “ASD pathway” to address genetic-environmental interactions in ASD. Taking into account the relevance of these considerations for brain diseases, as a whole, we propose a multi-hit hypothesis to explain the complex nature of interactions between germline mutations, somatic genomic variations (i.e. aneuploidy, genome and chromosome instability) and environment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Using different bioinformatic methods for gene prioritization and analyzing candidate processes for brain dysfunction, it becomes possible to place personalized genomic data in a systems (neuro)biology context. Multidimensional omics data is, therefore, a target for advanced bioinformatics studies, which are able to clarify the biological mechanisms of specific genetic changes in ASD and to enhance the potential for new therapeutic concepts.

Read more: 

Cellphones Hazardous for Brain

In this era of globalization, use of cellphones has become essential. For better or worse it has become an intrinsic part of modern life and culture. Keeping in contact with friends and family has become easier because of mobile phones. Business in this modern era could not survive without the use of mobile phone. It has become the source for any kind of information. Despite all the advantages cellphones are dangerous for health.


Cells in brain communicate through electrical impulses which travel throughout the body and carry messages to other cells and receptors.  These electrical impulses can be detected by Electroencephalogram (EEG) test. It is a test that records electrical patterns of brain. In recent year researchers from Netherlands conducted a study on mobile phone and found that radiation of dialing mobile phone is electrically detected by the brain. In the study, 31 healthy females were selected and were exposed to a 3G mobile phone for fifteen minutes. Their EEG activity was measured and change in brain activity was noted after radiation peaks. This study is not the only study that showed change in brain activity as a result of acute exposure to cellphone. Many other studies that were conducted in past years showed similar results.

This shows that brain of an individual is sensitive to cellphone radiation. Long term use of cellphone can increase risk of brain cancer due to which the World Health Organization also categorized radiation of mobile phone as a “possible human carcinogen”.

Blog ::: Brain Changes in Young American Football Players

In recent years many studies have been conducted and reports have emerged about the risks of brain injury caused by playing physical sports and also about their impact on development of the brain in the players. However, most researches are about the changes occurring in the players’ brain as a result of concussions, but few focus specifically on players who have never experienced concussions.


In one such study the research team headed by Christopher T. Whitlow, M.D., Ph.D., M.H.A., associate professor and chief of neuroradiology at Wake Forest School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, N.C., studied 25 young male football players to assess the brain changes after a season of football. Players who were chosen had no signs or symptoms of concussion. With the help of Head Impact Telemetry System (which is an advancement in MRI), data were recorded and analyzed to determine the risk weighted cumulative exposure associated with head impacts caused in a single season of play.

Using modern techniques, players’ brain images were taken before and after the season and it was revealed that there were changes in the white matter of the brains due to impacts during the games. To simplify, the research showed that the flow of water through the neural networks was not uniform. This is hard to tell if the changes are permanent right now and also what implications these changes may have. The research team suggests that time will answer how the players will have their brains function and age.

Bentham Open Access Article

The article entitled Interactions Between Nanosized Materials and the Brain in the journal Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2014, 21, 4200-4214 is now open for all to view and access
For article Information, please visit:
For journal information, please visit:


A Common Myth Debunked!


Endorsement of BSP Journal, Current Medicinal Chemistry, by Nobel Laureates


“Current Medicinal Chemistry represents an important review journal of great value to medicinal chemists in universities and pharmaceutical industries.”

Sir D.H.R. Barton
Nobel Laureate

“Current Medicinal Chemistry is an important review journal in the field of medicinal chemistry which should provide research scientists in the field with recent developments in various frontier areas. The journal is strongly recommended to the scientific community.”

Herbert C. Brown
Nobel Laureate

“Current Medicinal Chemistry is a frontier review journal which contains comprehensive reviews written by leading scientists in their respective fields. The journal presents the latest developments in various areas of medicinal chemistry. I strongly recommend it to scientists working in the field.”

Robert Huber
Nobel Laureate

“In view of the growing volume of literature, the role of a high quality review journal has become increasingly important. “Current Medicinal Chemistry” presents expert overviews in the field of medicinal chemistry of general interest to the scientific community”

Jean-Marie Lehn
Nobel Laureate

“Current Medicinal Chemistry” is a leading journal in the field of medicinal chemistry where cutting edge reviews in hot topic areas are regularly published. It provides scientists in the field with comprehensive review articles written by experts and eminent researchers in the field and allows them to keep abreast with the latest developments in the field. The journal is highly recommended to all scientists in the field of medicinal chemistry”

Ferid Murad
Nobel Laureate


Gadolinium: The MRI Agent Linked to Brain Abnormalities

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the better choices if you need a diagnostic imaging procedure performed. Unlike CT scans or X-rays, an MRI does not use ionizing radiation that may cause DNA damage or cancer.

Story at-a-glance

  • The use of gadolinium-based contrast agents for enhanced MRIs has been linked to hypersensitivity in certain brain regions, with unknown consequences
  • The use of gadolinium-based contrast agents is linked to the development of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF) in patients with severe kidney disease
  • The long-term effects of gadolinium-based contrast agents are unknown; only use contract agents if they are absolutely necessary (often they are optional and an MRI can be effectively performed without their use)

Instead, a strong magnetic field and radio waves produce cross-sectional images of your organs and other internal body structures. In some cases, however, a gadolinium contrast medium is used to make the images clearer (this is typically called an enhanced MRI).

There are risks involved when contrast agents are used, including potential brain abnormalities revealed by a new study, so it’s important to use extreme caution and only get an enhanced MRI if it is absolutely necessary.

Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents Linked to Brain Hypersensitivity

Gadolinium is a paramagnetic metal ion that moves differently within a magnetic field. When used during an MRI, it may make certain tissues, abnormalities, or diseases more clearly visible.

However, because the gadolinium ion is known to be toxic, it is chemically bonded with non-metal ions when used during MRIs to allow it to be eliminated from your body before it is released in your tissues.

For the first time, a new study has shown that the gadolinium may not be immediately eliminated and may instead persist in your body.1 The study compared brain images of patients who had undergone six or more contrast-enhanced MRI brain scans with those of patients who had received six or fewer unenhanced scans.

It revealed areas of high intensity, or hyperintensity, in two brain regions (the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP)), which correlated with the number of gadolinium-based enhanced MRIs.

It’s unknown at this time what the hyperintensity may mean, however hyperintensity in the DN is associated with multiple sclerosis. It’s now being suggested that this hyperintensity may be the result of the large number of enhanced MRI scans often received by multiple sclerosis patients. Hyperintensity of the GP, meanwhile, is linked with liver dysfunction. The study’s lead author noted:2

“Hyperintensity in the DN and GP on unenhanced MRI may be a consequence of the number of previous Gd-CM administrations… Because gadolinium has a high signal intensity in the body, our data may suggest that the toxic gadolinium component remains in the body even in patients with normal renal function.”

Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents Also Linked to Life-Threatening Skin Thickening

Among patients with severe kidney disease, the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents is linked to the development of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis, or NSF. NSF was first identified in 1997 and while its cause is unknown, it’s only been reported in those with kidney disease.

NSF causes skin thickening that can prevent bending and extending your joints. It can also develop in your diaphragm, thigh muscles, lung vessels, and lower abdomen. Along with causing decreased mobility of joints, NSF can be fatal.

Because of this connection, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requested that the manufacturers of all five gadolinium-based contrast agents (Magnevist, MultiHance, Omniscan, OptiMARK, and ProHance) add a boxed warning and a new Warnings section to their labels to describe the risk of developing NSF.3

I recommend that everyone use caution with gadolinium-based contrast agents and only use them when absolutely essential. Even if you’re healthy, these contrast agents may cause side effects like life-threatening allergic reaction, blood clots, blood vessel irritation and skin reactions, including hives, itching, and facial swelling.

However, if you have kidney disease, using caution is particularly important. Often the use of contrast agents is optional and an acceptable MRI can be conducted without the use of a contrast. If you have been administered a gadolinium-based contrast agent and you have kidney disease, be on the alert for the following symptoms of NSF, and contact your health care provider immediately if you experience them:

Swelling, hardening, and tightening of your skin Reddened or darkened patches on the skin Burning or itching of your skin
Yellow raised spots on the whites of your eyes Stiffness in your joints; problems moving or straightening arms, hands, legs, or feet Pain deep in your hip bones or ribs
Muscle weakness

Other MRI Risks You May Not Know About

As mentioned, MRIs are preferable to CT scans because they do not use ionizing radiation. However, it’s still wise to minimize their use as much as possible, in part because the effects of exposure to MRIs’ strong magnetic field are largely unknown.

Research has shown that there are biological effects in the human body, however, including to the retina, pineal gland, and some cells in the paranasal sinuses.4Time-varying magnetic fields may also interfere with your nerve cell function and muscle fibers, while MRIs also produce acoustic noise that has been known to cause temporary (and, rarely, permanent) hearing loss.

Finally, due to the strong magnetic field produced, an MRI can become deadly if metal objects in the room are not properly secured or you have medical devices such as a pacemaker in your body. There is at least one report of a child being killed during an MRI due to an unsecured metal oxygen tank.5

The MUST-KNOW Rule if You Are Getting an MRI

But the KEY here is to avoid using MRI scans with contrast unless ABSOLUTELY necessary. Many times, physicians will order these tests just to be complete and cover their butts from a legal perspective. If that is your case, then simply refuse to have the test done with contrast. If necessary, consult with other physicians that can provide you with a different perspective.

If You Need an MRI, It Pays to Shop Around

While I always recommend your being very judicious in your use of medical diagnostic procedures, there are certainly times when it is appropriate and useful for you to have a certain test. But many people don’t realize that the fees for these procedures can vary tremendously, depending on where they are performed. Hospitals tend to be the MOST expensive option for diagnostics and outpatient procedures—sometimes by an enormous margin.

Freestanding diagnostic centers are alternative places to obtain services, such as lab studies, X-rays, and MRIs, often at a fraction of the cost charged by hospitals. You may have driven by some of these centers in your city. Private imaging centers are not affiliated with any particular hospital and are typically open for Monday through Friday business hours, as opposed to hospital radiology centers that require round-the-clock staffing.

Hospitals often charge higher fees for their services to offset the costs of their 24/7 operations. Hospitals also may charge exorbitant fees for high-tech diagnostics, like MRIs, to subsidize other poorly reimbursed services. And, hospitals are allowed to charge Medicare and other third-party insurers a “facility fee,” leading to even more price inflation. So, if you do find that you need an MRI, don’t be afraid to shop around. With a few phone calls to diagnostic centers in your area, you could save up to 90 percent over what a hospital would charge for the same service.

Too absorbed in a Book?


A new study has found that reading a good book triggers neurological changes that can last for up to 5 days after finishing the book. All changes were registered in the left temporal cortex, the primary sensory motor regions of the brain which is also associated with language.


[Source: The Independent]

From the Shelves of Bentham eBooks

From the Shelves of Bentham eBooks

New eBooks