Most Cited Article – Susceptibility to Rhinovirus-induced Early Wheezing as a Risk Factor for Subsequent Asthma Development

Author(s):Hannele Mikkola*Minna HonkilaTerhi Tapiainen and Tuomas Jartti

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 03 January, 2022

Page: [86 – 94]

Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220103113813

Abstract

Rhinovirus is one of the two most common viral agents that cause bronchiolitis in young children. During the first 12 months, it is second to the respiratory syncytial virus, but after 12 months, it begins dominating the statistics. Wheezing and dry cough are typical clinical symptoms indicative of rhinovirus-induced bronchiolitis, although overlap of symptoms with other virus infections is common. Several studies have shown that atopic predisposition and reduced interferon responses increase susceptibility to rhinovirus-induced wheezing. More recent studies have found that certain genetic variations at strong asthma loci also increase susceptibility. Rhinovirus-induced wheezing in the early years of life is known to increase the risk of subsequent asthma development and may be associated with airway remodeling. This risk is increased by aeroallergen sensitization. Currently, there are no clinically approved preventive treatments for asthma. However, studies show promising results indicating that children with rhinovirus-affected first-time wheezing respond to bronchodilators in terms of less short-term symptoms and that controlling airway inflammatory responses with anti-inflammatory medication may markedly decrease asthma development. Also, enhancing resistance to respiratory viruses has been a topic of discussion. Primary and secondary prevention strategies are being developed with the aim of decreasing the incidence of asthma. Here, we review the current knowledge on rhinovirus-induced early wheezing as a risk factor for subsequent asthma development and related asthma-prevention strategies. Read now: https://bit.ly/3RXdhbr

Journal : “Current Pediatric Reviews”

5-31-2016 10-41-38 AM

Author(s): Karen M. Wilson and Emily Weis

Abstract: Tobacco Smoke (TS) exposure is an important cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. Estimates suggest that over 50% of US children are exposed to tobacco smoke, and 40% of children internationally. TS exposure has been linked with many specific diseases and social conditions. It is especially prevalent amongst children who live in poverty, and is associated with increased rates of food insecurity. Children who are exposed miss more school, and thus may miss important educational opportunities. Compounding this, exposed children show deficits in cognitive abilities, and increased behavioral problems. TS causes oxidative stress and changes in the immune system, which may result in lower antioxidant levels, and increased rates of asthma and other atopic diseases. In addition to asthma, TS exposure increases the risk and severity of respiratory diseases, including bronchiolitis and tuberculosis. TS exposure in children has been associated with diseases of other systems as well, including inflammatory bowel disease, leukemia, dental caries, and sudden infant death syndrome. Finally, we are starting to understand that the link between TS exposure and cardiovascular disease may begin in childhood, with exposed children having higher rates of metabolic syndrome, and measurable changes in their vascular contractility. Efforts need to continue worldwide to prevent childrens exposure to this toxic and harmful product.

Read more here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-pediatric-reviews/volume/7/issue/2/page/76/

 

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