Background: Arterial hypertension in children is considered a common alteration nowadays, mainly because obesity is a growing worldwide problem closely related to increased blood pressure. Childhood hypertension can be classified as primary or secondary, depending on the etiology. Primary or essential hypertension still has its pathophysiology not fully elucidated, and there is no consensus in the literature on most underlying mechanisms. In this review, genetic and environmental factors, including sodium and potassium intake, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, family structure, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, prematurity and low birth weight, prenatal and postnatal exposures are highlighted.
Objective: The present study aimed to perform an update on primary hypertension in childhood, providing clinicians and researchers an overview of the current state of the literature regarding the influence of genetic and environmental factors.
Methods: This integrative review searched for articles on genetic and environmental factors related to primary hypertension in pediatric patients. The databases evaluated were PubMed and Scopus.
Results: The studies have provided insights regarding many genetic and environmental factors, in addition to their association with the pathophysiology of primary hypertension in childhood. Findings corroborated the idea that primary hypertension is a multifactorial disease. Further studies in the pediatric population are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
Conclusion: The study of primary hypertension in pediatrics has utmost importance for the adoption of preventive measures and the development of more efficient treatments, therefore reducing childhood morbidity and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and other health consequences later in life.
Background: Numerous studies indicate that statins have multiple beneficial actions (known as ‘pleiotropic actions’) on cardiovascular system through the improvement of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, excessive arterial thrombosis, and stabilization of the atherosclerotic plaque. Aortic disease primarily consists of aortic valve stenosis, aortic valve regurgitation, aneurysm disease, and genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve and aortic coarctation. Many studies have revealed the cardioprotective actions of statins in aortic disease.
Objective: Our aim was to present current data concerning the value of treatment with statins in aortic diseases.
Methods: A thorough search of PubMed and the Cochrane Database was conducted to identify the studies and novel articles related to the use of statins in aortic disease.
Results: Numerous studies in animals and humans indicate a beneficial effect of treatment with statins in the previous conditions apart from a few conflicting data.
Conclusion: There is a need of further investigation in this field, especially for the estimation of the optimal type and dose of statins required in each clinical condition of aortic disease.
This World Food Day, we turn our focus onto a very important debate that has been going on for long but changing little in practice. The debate is about which cooking method is better for health, grilling or frying. Both the methods are popularly used and liked by masses. Grilling is done by placing food (meat or vegetables) on a wire grill kept over or under a source of heat. The food gets cooked through the thermal radiation emitted by the heat source and transmitted by the grill.
Frying, on the other hand, is done in a frying pan or utensil containing oil or fat. The food is placed in the oil, either shallow or deep, and cooked over a heat source. The temperature of the oil rises extremely high and conducts the heat into the food to be cooked. Frying makes the food crispy, hot and enhances the taste strongly. But does it compromise the nutrition of the food?
Yes. Frying causes the essential vitamins and other nutrients in the food to be destroyed due to high temperature. Further, it adds unhealthy fat into the food as the oil penetrates and increases the cholesterol levels. This is the bad cholesterol that chokes blood vessels, increasing the risk of stroke, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The visible ill effects include weight increase and lethargy in cases.
Grilling, also enhances taste but does not damage the nutrition in food. With it the cholesterol level in foods usually drops instead of rising. The moisture and essential vitamins and minerals are retained and add value to what we are consuming. The grilled food is more easily digested and does not store in the body as unwanted fat.
It’s high time we change our cooking methods and keep ourselves healthy for long.
Celebrating the World Heart Day on September 29th, we bring our focus to some serious problems related to the heart and vascular system that can lead a human being towards death. One such problem is the ageing of the blood vessels before their actual time. This phenomenon is called Early Vascular Ageing or EVA. Early vascular ageing is a significant marker for cardiovascular diseases and is generally identified by stiffening of the arteries.
EVA is caused when the blood vessels show signs of ageing before they reach their chronological age. This renders the blood vessels to be less flexible and disturbs the control of blood flow from and to the heart. It may occur due to various reasons including genetic factors, environmental effects on vascular system or any damages caused to the blood vessels over time etc. As the researchers, Dr. Stephane Laurent et al. notify in their article published in the journal, Current Hypertension Reviews, EVA is a problem that needs a lot of attention and finding its prevention can ensure many cardiovascular diseases can be combatted.
Author(s):Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Wael Al-Mahmeed, Mohamed Arafah, Ali T. Al-Hinai, Abdullah Shehab, Omer Al-Tamimi, Mahmoud Al-Awadhi,Shorook Al-Herz, Faisal Al-Anazi, Khalid Al-Nemer, Othman Metwally, Akram Al-Khadra, Mohammed Fakhry, Hossam Elghetany, Abdel R. Medani,Afzal H. Yusufali, Obaid Al-Jassim, Omar Al-Hallaq, Fahad O.A.S. Baslaib, Haitham Amin, Raul D. Santos, Khalid Al-Waili, Khamis Al-Hashmi,Khalid Al-Rasadi.
We evaluated the control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) in the Arabian Gulf. Of the 4398 enrolled patients, overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 60% were males, 13% were smokers, 76% had diabetes, 71% had metabolic syndrome and 78% had very high ASCVD risk status. The proportion of subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m2, HbA1c <7% (in diabetics), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) for high and very high ASCVD risk cohorts, respectively and controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was 14, 26, 31% and 60%, respectively. Only 1.4% of the participants had all of their CVD risk factors controlled with significant differences among the countries (P < .001). CVD risk goal attainment rates were significantly lower in those with very high ASCVD risk compared with those with high ASCVD risk status (P < .001). Females were also, generally, less likely to attain goals when compared with males (P < .001).
Author(s): Cheila Batista, N. R. Jesus, Catia M. Silva, Tiago P. Silva, Maria G. Campos
Cardiovascular patients frequently use herbal medicinal products, in order to contribute to the improvement of their chronic condition without medical intervention. However, they are likely to suffer from adverse effects from natural products and herb-drug interactions. In this work we present the results collected from a public campaign “Learning Health, among Plants and Medicines”, carried out by the Observatory of Herb-Drug Interactions (www.oipm.uc.pt), to alert cardiovascular patients and healthcare providers for the potential occurrence of herb-drug interactions with cardiovascular therapy. From the data received, it was highlighted the prevalence of certain natural products used by many cardiovascular patients in Portugal, particularly goji berries, green tea, mangosteen and rooibos that have significant cardiovascular effects. For this reason their intake should be carefully monitored in these patients. This prevalence of consumption suggests a pattern in their use in Portugal and a prevention of herb-drug interactions should be carried out by the health professionals. The ending results also indicate that there is still a lack of knowledge about the possible risks of herbal products intake, which may adversely affect the health of any patient. Thus becomes clear the value of the role of health professionals in the screening of such interactions.
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