MOST ACCESSED ARTICLE – Polyphenols: Potential Use in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Author(s): Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Angelo Maria Patti, Arrigo F.G. Cicero, Giuseppe Lippi, Manfredi Rizzo*, Peter P. Toth, Maciej Banach.

 

 

 

Abstract:

Background: Polyphenols are bioactive compounds that can be found mostly in foods like fruits, cereals, vegetables, dry legumes, chocolate and beverages such as coffee, tea and wine. They are extensively used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) providing protection against many chronic illnesses. Their effects on human health depend on the amount consumed and on their bioavailability. Many studies have demonstrated that polyphenols have also good effects on the vascular system by lowering blood pressure, improving endothelial function, increasing antioxidant defences, inhibiting platelet aggregation and low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and reducing inflammatory responses.

Methods: This review is focused on some groups of polyphenols and their effects on several cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, oxidative stress, atherogenesis, endothelial dysfunction, carotid artery intima-media thickness, diabetes and lipid disorders.

Results: It is proved that these compounds have many cardio protective functions: they alter hepatic cholesterol absorption, triglyceride biosynthesis and lipoprotein secretion, the processing of lipoproteins in plasma, and inflammation. In some cases, human long-term studies did not show conclusive results because they lacked in appropriate controls and in an undefined polyphenol dosing regimen.

Conclusion: Rigorous evidence is necessary to demonstrate whether or not polyphenols beneficially impact CVD prevention and treatment.

 

READ MORE HERE: http://www.eurekaselect.com/159482

MOST ACCESSED ARTICLE – Adverse Events of Proton Pump Inhibitors – Current Drug Metabolism

Journal: Current Drug Metabolism

Author(s): Andrea Corsonello*, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Silvia Bustacchini, Sabrina Garasto, Annalisa Cozza,Roberto Schepisi, Federica Lenci, Filippo Luciani, Marcello Giuseppe Maggio, Andrea Ticinesi, Valeria Butto,Sara Tagliaferri, Francesco Corica.

Graphical Abstract:

 

Abstract:

Objective: We aimed at summarizing current evidence about mechanisms for potentially harmful effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs).

Methods: A Pubmed search was performed, and 207 studies concerning the relationship between use of PPIs and cardiovascular diseases, kidney impairment, nutritional disorders, fractures, infections, functional decline, and mortality were selected and reviewed.

Results: PPIs may cause potentially harmful effects by several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, hypomagnesemia, drug interactions, reduced absorption of selected nutrients, increased gastric microbiota and small intestine bacterial overgrowth, reduced immune response, tubular-interstitial inflammation, increased bone turnover, accumulation of amyloid in the brain. Clinical and epidemiologic evidence is not consistent in regard to some negative outcomes during PPI treatment. Data from randomized clinical trials seem to deny most of them, but they are usually designed to investigate efficacy of drugs in ideal conditions and are not powered enough to detect adverse events. Besides being at special risk of experiencing negative outcomes during long-term treatment with PPIs, older and complex patients treated with polypharmacy regimens are persistently excluded from randomized clinical trials. Thus, large observational studies involving real-world patients should be considered as an important informative source about potential risks related to PPIs.

Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that use of PPIs may be associated with negative outcomes by eliciting several different pathophysiologic mechanisms. While short-term PPIs could be considered effective and safe in adult patients with acid-related disorders, their long-term and often inappropriate use in patients carrying vulnerability to adverse events and/or high risk of drug-interactions should be avoided.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/158149/article

 

EVA – Ageing Of The Blood Vessels Before Time

Celebrating the World Heart Day on September 29th, we bring our focus to some serious problems related to the heart and vascular system that can lead a human being towards death. One such problem is the ageing of the blood vessels before their actual time. This phenomenon is called Early Vascular Ageing or EVA. Early vascular ageing is a significant marker for cardiovascular diseases and is generally identified by stiffening of the arteries.

artery_hardening

EVA is caused when the blood vessels show signs of ageing before they reach their chronological age. This renders the blood vessels to be less flexible and disturbs the control of blood flow from and to the heart. It may occur due to various reasons including genetic factors, environmental effects on vascular system or any damages caused to the blood vessels over time etc. As the researchers, Dr. Stephane Laurent et al. notify in their article published in the journal, Current Hypertension Reviews, EVA is a problem that needs a lot of attention and finding its prevention can ensure many cardiovascular diseases can be combatted.

The article, Early Vascular Ageing (EVA): Definitions and Clinical Applicability, explains the phenomenon, its consequences and opportunities for finding preventive measures.

Find more studies on Early Vascular Ageing here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-hypertension-reviews/

Testimonial by Konstantinos Tziomalos!

KonstantinosTziomalos

Contributed Article: “Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Vs. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Pathological and Clinical Implications

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