Most Cited Article – Trends in Empirical Treatment of Hospitalized Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Nigeria

Author(s):Ebuka E. David*Ikechuku O. IgwenyiIfeanyichukwu R. IrohaChidinma N. DavidPrecious C. MbahOgochukwu F. OkpalaNkemdirim U. UkehOluchukwu OgbajiChinecherem E. Ugwurauma and Goodness C. Chukwuma

Volume 16, Issue 3, 2021

Published on: 24 November, 2021

Page: [237 – 244]

Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/2772434416666211022155438


Background: Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease with a high rate of morbidity and mortality in children below five years of age. Appropriate empirical treatment is therefore vital for reducing the incidence of the disease.

Objective: This study aimed at determining the trends in the empirical treatment of hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis.

Methods: The study involved the data analysis of 88 medical folders of children who were diagnosed with gastroenteritis from January to February 2020 (a period of gastroenteritis yearly outbreak) in Mile 4 Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Socio-demographic data and administered antibiotics data were collected.

Results: Out of the 88 children, a total of 54 (61%) children were males, while 34 (39%) were females. The ages of the children ranged between 1-51 months, while the mean age was seen at 14 months. About 58 (66%) were diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis alone, with children aged 7-12 months recording higher numbers [25 (28%)]. Severe dehydration was seen as the most common morbidity of children with acute gastroenteritis. The guardians/parents of these children stayed at home for an average of 3 days (1-6 days) before visiting the hospital. The children were treated for an average of 5 days (2-9 days) in the hospital. The most singly used antibiotics was ciprofloxacin [31 (35%)] followed by a combination of ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone [21 (24%)]. About 12 (14%) of the children were treated using a single dose of the antimalarial drug while 10 (11%) were treated in double combination therapy. The lowest duration in hospitalization (4 days) was seen in the use of a single dose regimen, while the highest hospitalization time (6 days) was seen in the use of a triple dose regimen.

Conclusion: The best empirical treatment of acute gastroenteritis may involve the use of ciprofloxacin alone and its combination with ceftriaxone. The severity of gastroenteritis may also be exacerbated with malaria. Read now:

Press Release | Children & coronavirus infection (COVID-19): How to avoid post-traumatic stress disorder


This editorial by Prof. Michele Roccella is published in The Open Pediatric Medicine Journal, Volume 10, 2020


COVID-19 is a pandemic that has forced many states to declare restrictive measures in order to prevent their wider spread. These measures are necessary to protect the health of adults, children and people with disabilities. Long quarantine periods could cause an increase in anxiety crisis, fear of contagion and post-traumatic stress disorder (frustration, boredom, isolation, fear, insomnia, difficulty concentrating).

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops as a consequence of one or more physical or psychological traumatic events, such as exposure to natural disasters such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis; wars, torture, death threats; road accidents, robbery, air accidents; diseases with unfavorable prognosis; complicated or traumatic mourning; physical and sexual abuse and abuse during childhood; victimization and discrimination based on gender, sexual orientation, gender identity. It can also develop following changes in lifestyle habits caused by the COCOVID-19 epidemic. The arrival of the pandemic caused by the Coronavirus (Covid-19) in the world is bringing families, teachers, educators and all the people who care for children every day. Long quarantine periods could cause an increase in anxiety crisis, fear of contagion and post-traumatic stress disorder (frustration, boredom, isolation, fear, insomnia, difficulty concentrating). It is important to speak calmly and directly to children.

The child may also be told that isolation is needed to avoid contact with the virus until we have effective drugs or a vaccine. For children, staying at home is not a problem, they are used to holidays; they spend their time playing, watching television, talking with family members, in some cases where the restrictive measures are not too strict, I can play outdoors. In these cases it is essential to reassure the children, to structure their day, to divide the times and spaces according to patterns and rhythms. We can say that based on previous quarantine experiences that long periods of isolation can lead to psychological symptoms such as emotional disturbances, depression, stress, mood disturbances, irritability, insomnia and signs of traumatic post-stress disorders. Therefore it is important to be able to explain to children what is happening and how to manage this traumatic event following the COVID-19 pandemic. Read full Press Release to find out more:


This editorial can be obtained from the following link:

Article by Disease | Therapeutic Utilities of Pediatric Cardiac Catheterization


Bentham Cardiovascular Disorders Collection | Cardiovascular Disorders | Aortic Coarctation 

Therapeutic cardiac catheterization constantly evolves and widens its spectrum of usage in the pediatric population. The advent of sophisticated devices and well-designed equipment has made the management of many congenital cardiac lesions more efficient and safer, while providing more comfort to the patient.




Read out more at:

World Polio Day, 2018!




World Polio Day was established by Rotary International over a decade ago to commemorate the birth of Jonas Salk, who led the first team to develop a vaccine against poliomyelitis. Use of this inactivated poliovirus vaccine and subsequent widespread use of the oral poliovirus, developed by Albert Sabin, led to the establishment of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988. As of 2013, GPEI had reduced polio worldwide by 99%.

Polio is a crippling and potentially fatal infectious disease. There is no cure, but there are safe and effective vaccines. Polio can be prevented through immunization. Polio vaccine, given multiple times, almost always protects a child for life. The strategy to eradicate polio is therefore based on preventing infection by immunizing every child until transmission stops and the world is polio-free.


Bentham Science publishes articles related to World Polio Day in its Subscription based journals including:







EDITOR’S CHOICE – Management of Adverse Effects from Atypical Antipsychotics

Journal Name: Current Psychopharmacology

Author(s): Ahsan Nazeer*, Joseph L. Calles.


Graphical Abstract:


The use of antipsychotic medications presents a trade-off for the treating physician. On the one hand, there is enough literature regarding the efficacy of these medications to support their judicial use, while on the other, chronic and at time impairing side effects are troubling to both physicians and the patients. Extrapyramidal side effects are the hallmark of first-generation antipsychotics, while metabolic side effects including weight gain, diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities are more common with second-generation antipsychotics. This article presents a concise overview of the current literature on antipsychotic-related side effects and treatment options.



Read more here:

ARTICLE TO READ ON World Malaria Day

Malaria in Children – Prevention and Management

Author(s): Angela Dramowski, Lisa Frigati, Helena Rabie, Mark Cotton


Malaria causes a quarter of all childhood deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa. Considerable gains in global malaria control have been achieved in the last decade but coverage of effective interventions remains low in areas of greatest malaria burden. Some countries have achieved reduced malaria related mortality through application of recent advances in malaria prevention and treatment of children. Artemisinin combination therapies (particularly artesunate) are highly efficacious and well-tolerated in children, although several alternative treatments are available. However, the evolution of drug resistance (including emerging resistance to artemisinin derivatives) threatens the success of malaria treatment programmes. This special issue review is aimed at paediatric clinicians in resource-poor settings and provides a summary of recent data from paediatric trials of malaria treatment and prevention interventions.

Read more here:


Article by Diseases ::: Pediatrics and Neonatology


Current Management of Neonatal Liver Tumors

Author(s): Max R. Langham, Wayne L. Furman and Israel Fernandez-Pineda

This review is focused on the special issues and challenges confronting physicians and surgeons caring for an unborn child, or a newborn with a liver tumor. Liver tumors at this age are very rare and they make it difficult for pediatric surgeons to gain experience necessary to obtain good results. On the other hand, adult hepatobiliary surgeons faced with a fetus or infant with a liver mass are ill equipped to care for the patient even if they have done a high volume of adult liver surgery and are expert in the field. Often a team approach is the best solution.

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See more articles categorized by diseases in the tab ‘Articles by Disease’ on our website


Articles by Diseases – Pediatrics and Neonatology


Ethical Considerations in Conducting Pediatric and Neonatal Research in Clinical Pharmacology 

Author(s): Michelle Roth-Cline and Robert M. Nelson

Abstract: The critical need for pediatric research on drugs and biological products underscores the responsibility to ensure that children are enrolled in clinical research that is both scientifically necessary and ethically sound. In this chapter, we review key ethical considerations concerning the participation of children. We review a basic ethical framework to guide pediatric research, and suggest how this framework might be operationalized in linking science and ethics. Topics examined include: the status of children as a vulnerable population; the appropriate balance of risk and potential benefit in research; and parental permission and child assent to participate in research.

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See more articles categorized by diseases in the tab ‘Articles by Disease’ on our website


eBook Podcast: Guide for Mental Health providers treating children with Chronic disease

Watch the podcast based on an eBook “Information for Mental Health Providers Working with Children who have Chronic Illnesses” by Dr. Laura Nabors

This podcast highlights the critical information vital for counselors, therapists, psychologists, and social worker treating children with chronic diseases. The eBook presents a guide for graduate students training to become counselors or therapists, and for the family members as well.

Podcast YouTube Link:

BSP Press Release-MEDLINE indexes Current Pediatric Review and MicroRNA

Bussum, Netherlands, July 2014: Bentham Science is delighted to announce that Current Pediatric Review and MicroRNA has been accepted for indexing in MEDLINE®.

Current Pediatric Reviews publishes frontier reviews, drug clinical trial studies and guest edited thematic issues on all the latest advances in pediatric medicine. The journal’s aim is to publish the highest quality review articles dedicated to clinical research in the field. For details, please visit the journal website at Current Pediatric Reviews

MicroRNA publishes loriginal research and review articles, drug clinical trial studies and thematic issues on all aspects of microRNA (miRNA) research. The scope of the journal covers all experimental miRNA research and applied research in health and disease, including therapeutic, biomarker, and diagnostic applications of MiRNA. For details, please visit the journal website at MicroRNA.

MEDLINE® Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online is the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s ® (NLM) premier bibliographic database that covers areas of the life sciences, behavioral sciences, chemical sciences, and bioengineering. MEDLINE also covers aspects of biology, environmental science, marine biology, plant and animal science as well as biophysics and chemistry. MEDLINE is the primary component of PubMed®, part of the Entrez series of databases provided by NLM’s National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Publications covered in MEDLINE are mostly scholarly journals, newspapers, magazines, and newsletters considered useful in the field of life sciences. For further information about Medline visit


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