Despite the wide range of available therapies, asthma remains uncontrolled in 40-65% of patients for a number of different reasons. Treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) is recommended in the Global Initiative for Asthma 2021 report for patients across all asthma severities, with treatment options combining an ICS with a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) or a LABA and a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), depending on disease severity. Based on this, the availability of a single inhaler fixed-dose ICS/LABA/LAMA combination is a major need in asthma management. Indacaterol acetate/glycopyrronium bromide/mometasone furoate has been developed as a once-daily inhaled asthma treatment that combines an ICS (mometasone furoate), a LABA (indacaterol acetate), and a LAMA (glycopyrronium bromide) in a formulation delivered using the dry powder inhaler Breezhaler®, for patients with uncontrolled asthma on medium- or high-dose ICS/LABA. This article provides an overview of the different and complementary mechanisms of action and the clinical effectiveness of the monocomponents of the indacaterol/glycopyrronium/ mometasone furoate fixed combination and highlights the benefits of using the three agents in combination in patients with moderate and severe asthma. Read now:https://bit.ly/3ffk29V
Author(s): Gunjan Jeswani*, Swarnali Das Paul, Arvind Kumar Jha
Background: The effects of various chemotherapeutic agents have been assessed for their capacity to inhibit the cell replication in variety of cancer cases. At present there are more than hundred chemotherapeutic agents capturing worth 42 billion dollar of drug market. The major obstacle in the successful treatment of cancer is the obnoxious side effects of chemotherapeutics and multi drug resistance, which deteriorates the quality of life of cancer patient.
Objective: This article attempts to summarize different novel chemotherapeutic delivery systems which aim to circumvent these unwanted effects.
Areas Covered: Outcomes of different tumor directed carrier systems have been discussed with special emphasis on nanocarriers systems, drug polymer conjugation, directly implantable matrices and others. In addition, combination therapy and immunotherapy are also discussed as a revolutionary alternative.
Conclusion: Even though significant contributions have been made in the development of carrier systems for the chemotherapeutic agents, merits and demerits of all the avenues should be critically examined. Potential of all novel strategies should be exploited by critically evaluating their strength, weakness, opportunities and threats. Further, clinical trials based on revised and critically scrutinized frameworks and protocols are needed so that the efficiency and safe action of these new systems can be guaranteed in cancer patients.
Author(s): Senthamil R. Selvan, John P. Dowling, William K. Kelly and Jianqing Ling
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a heme-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the breakdown of non-dietary tryptophan. The biology and immunomodulatory role for IDO is discussed in this review with a focus on its interaction with immune cells and its potential therapeutic target in the clinic. IDO has been revealed to be a central regulator of immune responses in a broad variety of physiological and pathological settings, mostly serving as a multifaceted negative feedback mechanism, to self-regulate immune responses. IDO is considered a therapeutic target in cancer and the use of IDO inhibitors as single agent or in combination with other treatment modalities are under active investigation.
Abstract: During the last few years, fixed combinations of intranasal antihistamines and corticosteroids have been introduced for treatment of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this systematic review was to assess recent patents and clinical evidence for fixed combinations of intranasal antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids in allergic rhinitis. Data base searches revealed that intranasal combinations of the antihistamine azelastine with the corticosteroids mometasone furoate, ciclesonide and fluticasone propionate, respectively, have been patented. Four randomized, double-blinded, parallelgroup, placebo-controlled, multicenter trials sponsored by the manufacturer evaluated the fixed combination of intranasal azelastine 125µg and fluticasone propionate 50µg administered as one dose per nostril b.i.d. in patients with moderate-tosevere symptomatic allergic rhinitis ≥ 12 years of age. Three of the studies were published as a meta-analysis which found the fixed combination of azelastine and fluticasone propionate statistically significantly more efficacious in reducing baseline total nasal symptom score by 5.7 as compared to azelastine (4.4; P < 0.001), fluticasone propionate (5.1; P < 0.001) and placebo (3.0; P < 0.001). The findings were supported by secondary assessments of scores of specific nasal and ocular symptoms.