Editor’s Choice – Comparison Between Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipients Admitted to a Referral Center Regarding Coronavirus-2019 Manifestations in the Northeast of Iran During Three Peaks of Pandemic

Author(s):Mohsen AliakbarianRozita Khodashahi *Mahin Ghorban SabbaghHamid Reza Naderi Mandana Khodashahi Shahrzad Jahanian and Maliheh Dadgar Moghaddam

Volume 17, Issue 4, 2021

Published on: 09 December, 2021

Page: [232 – 241]

Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X17666211122160608

Abstract

Background: Transplant recipients are at high risk for severe Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Transplant recipients are immune-compromised individuals at high risk for severe infection. This study aimed to compare the presentations and outcomes of liver and kidney transplant recipients who were infected with COVID-19 in the Iranian population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Imam Reza and Montaserieh Hospitals affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, between 2020 and 2021. In general, 52 patients were selected and divided into two groups of the kidney (n=28) and liver (n=24) transplantation. Two groups were compared in terms of demographic characteristics and clinical findings.

Results: Of the 52 patients, severe COVID-19 infection was reported in 61% of the patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of symptoms, except for cough (χ2=8.09; P=0.004), clinical condition, and laboratory symptoms, except for creatinine (Z=14; P<0.005), alkaline phosphatase (Z=4.55; P=0.03), total bilirubin (Z=8.93; P=0.03), and partial thromboplastin time (Z=5.97; P=0.01). There was no relationship between the outcome and the use of immunosuppressive medications (P>0.05). All patients with kidney transplantation survived, while two cases in the liver transplantation group failed to survive (χ2=2.42; P=0.11).

Conclusion: The mortality rate was higher in the liver transplant recipients, compared to the patients who underwent kidney transplantation. Read now: https://bit.ly/3UQ8N8c

Most Cited Article – Persistent/Late Complications of COVID-19 in Affected Emergency Medical Technicians: A Case Series and Brief Literature Review

Author(s):Peyman SaberianBehshad PazookiZahra ShajariParisa Hasani-SharaminMahnaz JamshididanaSomayeh Karimi and Alireza Baratloo*

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 27 May, 2022

Page: [152 – 157]

Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220509154612

Abstract

Background: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of persistent/late complications after recovery from the acute phase of COVID-19 in emergency medical technicians (EMTs).

Methods: This is a cross-sectional case-series study performed during the last quarter of 2020 in Tehran, Iran. All EMTs who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 were eligible. The researcher contacted the EMTs via telephone to determine any complications following their recovery. Those who suffered from any complication were referred to an internal specialist physician for a detailed history and physical examination. Based on the physician’s opinion, some paraclinical or clinical evaluations were requested to be performed.

Results: Four hundred thirty-one confirmed cases and two deaths due to this disease were registered among the Tehran EMS center’s EMTs during the study period. Two hundred thirty-eight EMTs were contacted, and 22.7% of them had at least one persistent/late complication following recovery of the acute phase of COVID-19; of whom, 28 EMTs were visited by an internist and completed the tests. The final participants mentioned seventy-five persistent/late complications. Only one EMT had a residual lesion among those who underwent lung CT scans. There were also some pathological findings in the echocardiographic examination and spirometry.

Conclusion: Our study showed that persistent/late-onset complications could likely accompany by COVID-19. Read now: https://bit.ly/3Cc0VXE

Most Cited Article – The Prognostic Effect of Clinical and Laboratory Findings on in-hospital Mortality in Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 Disease

Author(s):Ali JangjouRazieh Sadat Mousavi-Roknabadi*Hossein FaramarziAlireza NeydaniSeyed Rouhollah Hosseini-Marvast and Mostafa Moqadas

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 02 June, 2022

Page: [134 – 141]

Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220413113142

Abstract

Background: COVID-19 is known as a global health issue, which can cause high morbidity and mortality in patients. It is necessary to identify biomarkers, clinical and laboratory findings and effects on patients’ mortality.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic effect of clinical and laboratory findings on in-hospital mortality in patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study (February-August 2020) was conducted on adult patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in one of the main reference hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, southern Iran. Patients with uncompleted or missed medical files were excluded from the study. Clinical and laboratory findings were extracted from the patients’ medical files and then analyzed. The patients were categorized and later compared as survivor and nonsurvivors groups.

Results: 345 patients were enrolled and 205 (59.4%) were male. The mean±SD of age was 53.67±16.97 years, and 32 (9.3%) out of the total did not survive. Hypertension (28.4%) and diabetes (25.5%) were the most prevalent comorbidities. All clinical symptoms were similar in both groups, except fever, which was observed significantly more in nonsurvivors (P=0.027). The duration of hospitalization was 9.20±5.62 (range; 2-42) days, which was higher in nonsurvivors (P<0.001). The results of Multivariate Logistic Regression Model showed that CRP (OR=1.032, P=0.01) and INR (OR=48.88, P=0.049) were the predictor factors for in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Conclusion: The current study showed that in-hospital mortality was 9.3%. It was found that CRP and INR were the predictor factors for in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. Read now: https://bit.ly/3DIzVA5

Most Cited Article – COVID-19 and Autoimmune Diseases: A Systematic Review of Reported Cases

Author(s):Mariam Ahmed SaadMostafa Alfishawy*Mahmoud NassarMahmoud MohamedIgnatius N. Esene and Amira Elbendary

Volume 17, Issue 2, 2021

Published on: 29 October, 2020

Page: [193 – 204]

Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1573397116666201029155856

Abstract

Introduction: Over 4.9 million cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed since the worldwide pandemic began. Since the emergence of COVID-19, a number of confirmed cases reported autoimmune manifestations. Herein, we reviewed the reported COVID-19 cases with associated autoimmune manifestations.Methods: We searched PubMed database using all available keywords for COVID-19. All related studies between January 1st, 2020 to May 22nd, 2020 were reviewed. Only studies published in English language were considered. Articles were screened based on titles and abstracts. All reports of confirmed COVID-19 patients who have associated clinical evidence of autoimmune disease were selected.

Results: Among the 10006 articles, searches yielded thirty-two relevant articles for full-text assessment. Twenty studies has met the eligibility criteria. The twenty eligible articles reported 33 cases of confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis who developed an autoimmune disease after the onset of covid-19 symptoms. Ages of patients varied from a 6 months old infant to 89 years old female (Mean=53.9 years of 28 cases); five cases had no information regarding their age. The time between symptoms of viral illness and onset of autoimmune symptoms ranged from 2 days to 33 days (Mean of the 33 cases=9.8 days). Autoimmune diseases were one case of subacute thyroiditis (3%), two cases of Kawasaki Disease (6.1%), three cases of coagulopathy and antiphospholipid syndrome (9.1%), three cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (9.1%), eight cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (24.2%), and sixteen cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (48.5%).

Conclusion: COVID-19 has been implicated in the development of a range of autoimmune diseases, which may shed light on the association between autoimmune diseases and infections. Read now: https://bit.ly/3QPVx0d

Drug therapy for SARS-CoV-2 and Seizures based on Mechanistic Targets

Divya Goel, Ankit Srivastava, Ángel Aledo-Serrano, Anuja Krishnan, Divya Vohora

DOI: 10.2174/1874467214666211013122528

What is it about?

As a result of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the entire world was come to a halt. This illness has been linked to neurological symptoms such as headache, dizziness, stroke, or seizures, in addition to atypical pneumonia and lung disease symptoms. It is still unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 has a direct or indirect link to seizures. In this study, we identified the most likely drug candidate for COVID-19 in people with epilepsy or COVID-19 patients experiencing seizures using a literature search and the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. After searching for common molecular targets affecting SARS-CoV-2 and seizures, we discovered ivermectin, dexamethasone, anakinra, and tocilizumab for protection against both COVID-19 and seizures. Additionally, we identified valproic acid as the most likely pharmacotherapy for COVID-19 individuals who were suffering seizures among the antiseizure drugs.

Why is it important?

The findings will serve as the starting point for more research on the aetiology and therapeutic targeting techniques for this newly discovered infection that causes seizures or in individuals with epilepsy. Read now: https://bit.ly/3ROSZjY

Recent Insights into COVID-19 in Children and Clinical Recommendations

Jairo Castellar-López, Wendy Villamizar-Villamizar, Aldo Amaranto-Pallares, Wendy Rosales-Rada, Maria De Los Angeles Vélez Verbel, Aileen Chang, Franklin Torres Jiménez, Evelyn Mendoza-Torres

DOI: 10.2174/1573396317666211206124347

What is it about?

Pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been recognized in multiple countries globally. In this review, we provide recent insights into SARS-CoV-2 infection in children from epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory perspectives, including reports on the disease course and therapy. We highlight key features of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, the relationship between MIS-C and Kawasaki disease, and summarize treatment guidelines for COVID-19 in children from institutional protocols from Colombia, case reports, recommendations based on expert consensus, and official statements from organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), United States Center for Disease Control (CDC), Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases, and the Colombian Society of Pediatrics. Finally, we discuss gaps in research with suggestions for future research on the pathogenesis underlying pediatric COVID-19.

Why is it important?

While recent reports of pediatric infections show better prognosis than in adults, a growing number of children are being affected as transmission continues and the long-term impact in children is unknown. Furthermore, infections in children pose an important challenge for infection control measures. Therefore, it is justified to review the impact that SARS-CoV-2 has had on the pediatric population. This work aimed to review recent insights into SARS-CoV-2 infection in children from an epidemiological, clinical and laboratory perspective, including reports on the disease course and therapy. Read now: https://bit.ly/3eKQHEp

Most Cited Article – COVID-19 in Pediatrics: A Systematic Review of Current Knowledge and Practice

Author(s):Esmaeil MehraeenShahram OliaeiSeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi*Amirali KarimiPegah MirzapourAmir Masoud AfsahiAlireza BarzegaryFarzin VahediMahdi SoleymanzadehFarzane BehnezhadMohammad JavaherianGhazal ZargariSeyed Peyman MirghaderiTayebeh Noori and Jean-Marc Sabatier

Volume 22, Issue 5, 2022

Published on: 18 April, 2022

Article ID: e290921196908

Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1871526521666210929121705

Abstract

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is the novel coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and could afflict individuals from all walks of life. Children are usually asymptomatic or represent non-specific mild to moderate symptoms; therefore, they often remain undiagnosed and could be potential reservoirs and silent carriers of the virus. Despite the global attention to COVID-19 and its importance in public health, some clinical and paraclinical aspects of this disease in children are still unclear. Thus, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review of available literature to reflect on the current knowledge and practice of the disease among children.

Methods: This study was a systematic review of current evidence conducted in October 2020. We performed a systematic search using the keywords in online databases. The investigation adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to ensure the reliability and validity of extracted literature and results.

Results: We selected and reviewed 23 most related studies out of 1744 identified papers in an initial online search based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the present review; of whom 13 were original research studies, and 10 were letters to the editors, commentaries, viewpoints, consensus statements, and perspectives. Although due to the origin of the current pandemic, China was the country with the most publications (12 articles), data from several countries have been included in this review.

Conclusion: COVID-19 can also affect children and cause systemic disease with several internal organ involvements. However, the prevalence, severity, and diversity of the symptoms in children are less than in adults. Cough and fever appear to be some of the most common symptoms, followed by other symptoms such as gastrointestinal manifestations. Comorbidities increase the risk of severe COVID-19 in children, and those without underlying conditions are very unlikely to suffer from severe disease. Mental health issues such as anxiety and depression due to the isolated situation caused by pandemics are common findings in children of early ages and should be seriously considered in current practice. Read now: https://bit.ly/3ATBGZo

Editors Choice – Correlations and Hierarchical Clustering Investigation Between Weather and SARS-CoV-2

Author(s):Kaoutar El Handri* and Abdellah Idrissi

Volume 15, Issue 6, 2022

Published on: 09 November, 2020

Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/2666255813999201109201006

Abstract

Background: Humanity today faces a global emergency. It is conceivably the greatest crisis of our generation. The coronavirus pandemic, which has many global implications, has led researchers worldwide to seek solutions to this crisis, including the search for effective treatment in the first place.

Objective: This study aims to identify the factors that can have an essential effect on COVID-19 comportment. Having proper management and control of imports of COVID-19 depends on many factors that are highly dependent on a country’s sanitary capacity and infrastructure technology. Nevertheless, meteorological parameters can also be a connecting factor to this disease; since temperature and humidity are compatible with a seasonal respiratory virus’s behavior.

Method: In this work, we analyze the correlation between weather and the COVID-19 epidemic in Casablanca, the economic capital of Morocco. It is based on the primary analysis of COVID-19 surveillance data from the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Morocco and weather data from the meteorological data. Weather factors include minimum temperature (°C), maximum temperature (°C), mean temperature (°C), maximum wind speed (Km/h), humidity (%), and rainfall (mm). The Spearman and Kendall rank correlation test is used for data analysis. Between the weather components.

Results: The mean temperature, maximum temperature (°C) and Humidity were significantly correlated with the COVID-19 pandemic with respectively (r= -0.432, r = -0.480; r=0.402, and p=- 0.212, p= -0.160, and p= -0.240).

Conclusion: This discovery helps reduce the incidence rate of COVID-19 in Morocco, considering the significant correlation between weather and COVID-19, of about more than 40%. Read now: https://bit.ly/3d4BXPL

Editors Choice – The Potential Use of Cyclosporine Ultrafine Solution Pressurised Metered- Dose Inhaler in the Treatment of COVID-19 Patients

Author(s):Touraj Ehtezazi *

Volume 16, Issue 1, 2022

Published on: 30 November, 2021

Page: [3 – 15]

DOI:10.2174/2772574X12666211122113318

Abstract

Introduction: Serious COVID-19 respiratory problems start when the virus reaches the alveolar level, where type II cells get infected and die. Therefore, virus inhibition at the alveolar level would help preventing these respiratory complications.

Method: A literature search was conducted to collect physicochemical properties of small molecule compounds that could be used for the COVID-19 treatment. Compounds with low melting points were selected along with those soluble in ethanol, hydrogen-bond donors, and acceptors.

Results: There are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus inhibitors with physicochemical properties suitable for the formulation as an ultrafine pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). Mycophenolic acid, Debio 025, and cyclosporine A are prime candidates among these compounds. Cyclosporine A (hereafter cyclosporine) is a potent SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor, and it has been used for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, demonstrating an improved survival rate. Also, inhalation therapy of nebulised cyclosporine was tolerated, which was used for patients with lung transplants. Finally, cyclosporine has been formulated as a solution ultrafine pMDI. Although vaccine therapy has started in most countries, inhalation therapies with non-immunological activities could minimise the spread of the disease and be used in vaccine-hesitant individuals.

Conclusion: Ultrafine pMDI formulation of cyclosporine or Debio 025 should be investigated for the inhalation therapy of COVID-19. Read more: https://bit.ly/3zfOuY3

Most Cited Article – Molecular Docking and Dynamics Simulation of Natural Phenolic Compounds with GSK-3β: A Putative Target to Combat Mortality in Patients with COVID-19

Author(s):Zahra Khamverdi Zeinab Mohamadi and Amir Taherkhani *

Volume 15, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 15 December, 2021

Page: [16 – 34]Pages: 19

DOI: 10.2174/1872213X14666210916161447

Abstract

Objective: In this study, molecular docking analysis was performed to evaluate the binding affinity of 52 plant-based phenolics with the GSK-3β active sites. Moreover, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation was conducted to investigate the stability of interactions between the topranked phenolics and residues within the GSK-3β active sites.

Methods: Molecular docking and MD simulations were performed using AutoDock and Discovery Studio Client software, respectively. Thereafter, pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties of top inhibitors were predicted using bioinformatics web tools. This study aimed to identify the most effective amino acids involved in the inhibition of GSK-3β based on the most stabilizing interactions between the residues and compounds, and also by considering the degree centrality in the ligand- amino acid interaction network for GSK-3β.

Results: It was observed that procyanidin and amentoflavone could bind to the GSK-3β active sites at the picomolar (pM) scale as well as the binding affinity of ΔG binding < -13 kcal/mol, while the inhibition constant for theaflavin 3’-gallate, procyanidin B4, and rutin was calculated at the nanomolar (nM) scale, suggesting that these phenolic compounds can be considered as potential effective GSK-3β inhibitors. Furthermore, Val70, Ala83, Val135, and Tyr134 were found to be the most important amino acids involved in the inhibition of GSK-3β.

Conclusion: The results of the current study may be useful in the prevention of several human disorders, including COVID-19, cancers, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. However, wet-lab experiments need to be performed in the future. Read now: https://bit.ly/3RXNW1A

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