Most cited article: Overview of Drug Therapy of COVID-19 with Safety and the Potential Clinical Benefits

Author(s):Rajesh Basnet*Sandhya KhadkaBuddha Bahadur BasnetTil Bahadur Basnet and Sanjeep Sapkota


The discovery and development of the drug/vaccine for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the process of developing a preventive vaccine or treatment drug to reduce the severity of COVID-19. Internationally, hundreds of pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, university research groups, and the World Health Organization (WHO) have developed vaccines for the past few centuries. Currently, they are continuously putting effort into developing possible therapies for COVID-19 disease, which are now at various stages of the preclinical or clinical research stage. In addition, researchers are trying to accelerate the development of vaccines, antiviral drugs, and postinfection treatments. Many previously approved drug candidates are already studied to alleviate discomfort during the disease complication. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of COVID-19 therapeutic drugs.

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Podcast: Innovative Ingredients Fortified Nutrients Enriched Biscuits and Cookies: Quality and Sensory Analyses

Author(s):Niladri Chakraborty* and Rajat Chakraborty


Global suffering from COVID-19 has necessitated augmenting the immunity systems of humans through the consumption of macro-micro-nutrients and antioxidant-enriched fortified foods. In this article, fortifications of popular bakery products, viz. biscuits, and cookies, have been reviewed, encompassing the novel fortifying ingredients and innovative methods employed with an emphasis on the overall enrichment of the final product quality. A few notable features concerning novel fortified biscuits and fortified cookies have been decisively summarized. Wheat flour blended with 40% sesame-cake flour resulted in a fortified biscuit possessing higher protein (16.6%), crude fat (16.95%), and dietary fiber (8.2%) with acceptable sensory characteristics. About 9% toting up of chicken eggshell dried powder could result in high Ca content in biscuits with customary changes in texture and sensory properties. A remarkable 5% addition of bee pollen to wheat flour appreciably improved the nutrient compositions (carbohydrate 65.18%, protein 7.32%, and total dietary fiber 1.47%) along with high polyphenol and antioxidant potentials. Notably, mixing fish fillet protein concentrate with wheat flour could yield enhanced nutritional content (protein 14.63-19.52%, fat 16.2-16.5%), as well as augmented amino acids. Remarkably, wheat flour fortified with fermented jack bean flour resulted in an overall fortified biscuit with substantial carbohydrates, crude protein, fat, fiber, ash, and appreciable macro-micro mineral contents and sensory characteristics. Innovative fortified cookies were made by blending wheat flour or Brewer’s spent grain flour with one or more ingredients, e.g. full-fat soya, mushroom, cardamom powder, moringa leaves, coconut, sweet potato flour rendering amplified values of nutrients, superior physical properties, increased mineral and flavonoid contents and organoleptic qualities.

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Open access: Biomedical Perspectives of Acute and Chronic Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of COVID-19

Author(s): George B. Stefano*Pascal BüttikerSimon WeissenbergerRadek PtacekFuzhou WangTobias EschThomas V. BilfingerJiri Raboch and Richard M. Kream

The incidence of infections from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has dramatically escalated following the initial outbreak in China, in late 2019, resulting in a global pandemic with millions of deaths. Although the majority of infected patients survive, and the rapid advent and deployment of vaccines have afforded increased immunity against SARS-CoV-2, long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection have become increasingly recognized. These include, but are not limited to, chronic pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disorders, and proinflammatory-associated neurological dysfunction that may lead to psychological and neurocognitive impairment. A major component of cognitive dysfunction is operationally categorized as “brain fog” which comprises difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness, confusion, depression, and fatigue. Multiple parameters associated with long-term neuropsychiatric sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been detailed in clinical studies. Empirically elucidated mechanisms associated with the neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are by nature complex, but broad-based working models have focused on mitochondrial dysregulation, leading to systemic reductions of metabolic activity and cellular bioenergetics within the CNS structures. Multiple factors underlying the expression of brain fog may facilitate future pathogenic insults, leading to repetitive cycles of viral and bacterial propagation. Interestingly, diverse neurocognitive sequelae associated with COVID-19 are not dissimilar from those observed in other historical pandemics, thereby providing a broad and integrative perspective on potential common mechanisms of CNS dysfunction subsequent to viral infection. Poor mental health status may be reciprocally linked to compromised immune processes and enhanced susceptibility to infection by diverse pathogens. By extrapolation, we contend that COVID-19 may potentiate the severity of neurological/neurocognitive deficits in patients afflicted by well-studied neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Accordingly, the prevention, diagnosis, and management of sustained neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are pivotal health care directives and provide a compelling rationale for careful monitoring of infected patients, as early mitigation efforts may reduce short- and long-term complications.

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The TP53 Gene and COVID-19 Virus: A Correlation Analysis

Author(s):C. Lakshmi Anand* and P.K. Krishnan Namboori

Aim: This study aimed to discover the most effective anti-cancer medicine for cancer patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Background: The correlation between TP53 and SARS-CoV-2 was examined using biomolecular networking analysis.

Objective: Cancer patients with TP53 gene mutations are more likely to be infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus since it is the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in human cancer. The main goal of this study is to discover the most effective and efficient anti-cancer therapy for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Materials and Methods: Topp gene analysis was used to prioritize candidate genes based on molecular function, biological process, and pathway analysis. Biomolecular networking was carried out using Cytoscape 2.8.2. The protein-protein interaction network was used to identify the functionally associated proteins. The protein-drug interaction network was used to observe the molecular therapeutic efficiency of drugs. The network was further analyzed using CytoHubba to find the hub nodes. The molecular docking was used to study the proteinligand interaction, and the protein-ligand complex was further evaluated through molecular dynamic simulation to determine its stability.

Results: Functionally relevant genes were prioritized through Toppgene analysis. Using Cytohabba, it was found that the genes UBE2N, BRCA1, BARD1, TP53, and DPP4 had a high degree and centrality score. The drugs 5-fluorouracil, Methotrexate, Temozolomide, Favipiravir, and Levofloxacin have a substantial association with the hub protein, according to protein-drug interaction analysis. Finally, a docking study revealed that 5-fluorouracil has the highest connection value and stability compared to Methotrexate, Favipiravir, and Levofloxacin.

Conclusion: The biomolecular networking study was used to discover the link between TP53 and SARS-CoV-2, and it was found that 5-fluorouracil had a higher affinity for binding to TP53 and its related genes, such as UBE2N, BRCA1, RARD1, and SARS-CoV-2 specific DPP4. For cancer patients with TP53 gene mutations and Covid-19 infection, this treatment is determined to be the most effective.

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Current issue: Burnout Syndrome in Emergency Physicians in Venezuela Early in the COVID-19 Pandemic

Author(s):Oscar Medina-Ortiz*Alejandro Oses GilJenny AlcendraGonzálezJuan Diego VivasMaría Parra SánchezLuis Parra SánchezManuel Riaño-GarzónMaría Judith Bautista-Sandoval and David Fraguas Herraez

Background: Burnout syndrome is a clinical entity that can negatively affect healthcare workers, especially frontline medical staff.

Objective: Determine the prevalence of burnout in emergency physicians at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: The Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered to 150 emergency physicians in 2020 during the first months of the pandemic in a Venezuelan hospital. There are two limitations, the size of sample is small and the study physicians have poor social conditions that do not allow generalizing the results.

Results: Over three quarters of the physicians surveyed (76.7%) experienced burnout and 55.3% had health problems due to stress. The higher the number of years working in the hospital and/or the lower the job satisfaction, the higher the burnout rate (p <0.05).

Conclusion: A large number of physicians in Venezuela experienced burnout during the first months of the pandemic, but half of them believed they did not need psychological help. Prevalence of burnout was high among physicians with more years of service and among those with lower job satisfaction.

Most cited: Comorbidity and Association of Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, Anxiety, and Somatic Complaints in COVID-19 Georgian Patients at the Beginning of Pandemic

Author(s):Giorgi Sikharulidze*Levan RatianiMariam SordiaElene SikharulidzeTinatin KhutsishviliKhatuna Lejava and Eric Vermetten

Background: The global pandemic which the world has been facing for the past two years has demonstrated the need to study the effects of this virus on mental health. Various studies showed that COVID-19 could be a threat to people’s mental health and physical health, yet the findings are still very limited. The purpose of the study was to fill an existing gap in the corresponding literature by analyzing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, somatic complaints, depression, and anxiety in COVID-19 patients and studying their comorbidity to determine the impact of the virus on the patients’ mental well-being.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 took part in the study one month after their discharge from the hospital, accounting for 10% of all COVID-19 patients across Georgia during the research. PTSD Checklist (PCL-5) was used. Depression, somatic symptoms, and anxiety were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ).

Results: The results have shown that COVID-19, as a traumatic event, presents an association with PTSD, depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. A high prevalence of depression (38,6%), anxiety (34,9%), and somatic symptoms (47%) was displayed. The overall indirect effect of PTSD on somatic symptoms was significant through depression and anxiety: 0.16, 95% CI [0.08, 0.26]. According to the report, the indirect effect of PTSD on somatic symptoms of depression was 0.12, 95% CI [0.05, 0.20].

Conclusion: The study presents important findings on the relations between COVID-19 and patients mental health. Somatic complaints, depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms were prevalent in participants even after a month since they had COVID-19. Correlations between somatic complaints, anxiety, depression, and PTSD were also demonstrated. Even though there are various limitations to this study, how COVID-19 could affect mental health warrants further, more detailed research, which is necessary.

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Most cited article: The Levels of Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Resilience and their Relationships with Academic Performance in College Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Author(s):Muath A. AlammarDushad Ram*Khudhayr Nasser Albarragi and Abdullah Saad Alshahrani

Introduction: Cognitive flexibility and resilience may influence academic achievement. These cognitive functions may be affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only a few studies have been conducted to examine these relationships.

Objective: This study examined college students’ cognitive flexibility and resilience and their relationships with academic achievement during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 303 students were assessed using sociodemographic and academic proforma, the Cognitive Flexibility Scale, and the Cognitive Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, contingency table analysis, the Kruskal– Wallis H test, the Mann–Whitney U test, and linear regression analysis (with moderation).

Results: Cognitive flexibility was significantly greater in success-oriented students who had a backlog and studied a health science subject, whereas resilience was greater in those who had lower course competency and had encountered psychological issues. Exam scores were positively linked with students’ economic status and negatively linked with students’ perceptions of course competency. Cognitive resilience predicted exam performance positively, which was moderated by cognitive flexibility.

Conclusion: Cognitive resilience positively affects academic performance and is moderated by cognitive flexibility. Academic performance may influence by cognitive flexibility and resilience during the COVID-19 epidemic. Enhancing cognitive resilience through intervention may improve academic performance.

Editor’s Choice – Comparison Between Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipients Admitted to a Referral Center Regarding Coronavirus-2019 Manifestations in the Northeast of Iran During Three Peaks of Pandemic

Author(s):Mohsen AliakbarianRozita Khodashahi *Mahin Ghorban SabbaghHamid Reza Naderi Mandana Khodashahi Shahrzad Jahanian and Maliheh Dadgar Moghaddam

Volume 17, Issue 4, 2021

Published on: 09 December, 2021

Page: [232 – 241]

Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X17666211122160608


Background: Transplant recipients are at high risk for severe Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Transplant recipients are immune-compromised individuals at high risk for severe infection. This study aimed to compare the presentations and outcomes of liver and kidney transplant recipients who were infected with COVID-19 in the Iranian population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Imam Reza and Montaserieh Hospitals affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, between 2020 and 2021. In general, 52 patients were selected and divided into two groups of the kidney (n=28) and liver (n=24) transplantation. Two groups were compared in terms of demographic characteristics and clinical findings.

Results: Of the 52 patients, severe COVID-19 infection was reported in 61% of the patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of symptoms, except for cough (χ2=8.09; P=0.004), clinical condition, and laboratory symptoms, except for creatinine (Z=14; P<0.005), alkaline phosphatase (Z=4.55; P=0.03), total bilirubin (Z=8.93; P=0.03), and partial thromboplastin time (Z=5.97; P=0.01). There was no relationship between the outcome and the use of immunosuppressive medications (P>0.05). All patients with kidney transplantation survived, while two cases in the liver transplantation group failed to survive (χ2=2.42; P=0.11).

Conclusion: The mortality rate was higher in the liver transplant recipients, compared to the patients who underwent kidney transplantation. Read now:

Most Cited Article – Persistent/Late Complications of COVID-19 in Affected Emergency Medical Technicians: A Case Series and Brief Literature Review

Author(s):Peyman SaberianBehshad PazookiZahra ShajariParisa Hasani-SharaminMahnaz JamshididanaSomayeh Karimi and Alireza Baratloo*

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 27 May, 2022

Page: [152 – 157]

Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220509154612


Background: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of persistent/late complications after recovery from the acute phase of COVID-19 in emergency medical technicians (EMTs).

Methods: This is a cross-sectional case-series study performed during the last quarter of 2020 in Tehran, Iran. All EMTs who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 were eligible. The researcher contacted the EMTs via telephone to determine any complications following their recovery. Those who suffered from any complication were referred to an internal specialist physician for a detailed history and physical examination. Based on the physician’s opinion, some paraclinical or clinical evaluations were requested to be performed.

Results: Four hundred thirty-one confirmed cases and two deaths due to this disease were registered among the Tehran EMS center’s EMTs during the study period. Two hundred thirty-eight EMTs were contacted, and 22.7% of them had at least one persistent/late complication following recovery of the acute phase of COVID-19; of whom, 28 EMTs were visited by an internist and completed the tests. The final participants mentioned seventy-five persistent/late complications. Only one EMT had a residual lesion among those who underwent lung CT scans. There were also some pathological findings in the echocardiographic examination and spirometry.

Conclusion: Our study showed that persistent/late-onset complications could likely accompany by COVID-19. Read now:

Most Cited Article – The Prognostic Effect of Clinical and Laboratory Findings on in-hospital Mortality in Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 Disease

Author(s):Ali JangjouRazieh Sadat Mousavi-Roknabadi*Hossein FaramarziAlireza NeydaniSeyed Rouhollah Hosseini-Marvast and Mostafa Moqadas

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 02 June, 2022

Page: [134 – 141]

Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220413113142


Background: COVID-19 is known as a global health issue, which can cause high morbidity and mortality in patients. It is necessary to identify biomarkers, clinical and laboratory findings and effects on patients’ mortality.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic effect of clinical and laboratory findings on in-hospital mortality in patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study (February-August 2020) was conducted on adult patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in one of the main reference hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, southern Iran. Patients with uncompleted or missed medical files were excluded from the study. Clinical and laboratory findings were extracted from the patients’ medical files and then analyzed. The patients were categorized and later compared as survivor and nonsurvivors groups.

Results: 345 patients were enrolled and 205 (59.4%) were male. The mean±SD of age was 53.67±16.97 years, and 32 (9.3%) out of the total did not survive. Hypertension (28.4%) and diabetes (25.5%) were the most prevalent comorbidities. All clinical symptoms were similar in both groups, except fever, which was observed significantly more in nonsurvivors (P=0.027). The duration of hospitalization was 9.20±5.62 (range; 2-42) days, which was higher in nonsurvivors (P<0.001). The results of Multivariate Logistic Regression Model showed that CRP (OR=1.032, P=0.01) and INR (OR=48.88, P=0.049) were the predictor factors for in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Conclusion: The current study showed that in-hospital mortality was 9.3%. It was found that CRP and INR were the predictor factors for in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. Read now:

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