Author(s): Natália Galdi Quel,Carlos H.I. Ramos*.
Protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, is required for proper cell function and thus must be under tight maintenance in all circumstances. In crowded cell conditions, protein folding is sometimes unfavorable, and this condition is worsened during stress situations. Cells cope with such stress through the use of a Protein Quality Control system, which uses molecular chaperones and heat shock proteins as its major players. This system aids with folding, avoiding misfolding and/or reversing aggregation. A pivotal regulator of the response to heat stress is Heat Shock Factor, which is recruited to the promoters of the chaperone genes, inducting their expression. This mini review aims to cover our general knowledge on the structure and function of this factor.
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Current Inorganic Chemistry 7, Issue 2
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Current Medicinal Chemistry 25, Issue 1
Current Medicinal Chemistry 25, Issue 2
Journal: Current Proteomics
Author(s): Oktay H. Ozturk, Cenker Eken, Zeynep Avcil, Filiz Ozcan, Mutay Aslan*
Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a cardiovascular emergency that affects many patients. Acute PE-induced oxidative stress can lead to the accumulation of nitroproteins that may play a role in disease progression. The impact of nitration of a single tyrosine residue often has broad implications on the activity of biologically critical proteins, related to pathological conditions.
Methods: We used a proteomic approach to analyze nitrated plasma proteins in patients diagnosed with acute PE. Nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr)-containing proteins were immunoprecipitated with a NO2Tyr affinity sorbent. Precipitated proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and visualized by either Coomassie Blue staining or western blotting with mouse monoclonal anti-NO2Tyr antibody. Immunoreactive bands observed in disease patients were in-gel digested and analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS).
Results: Mass fingerprint data sets obtained from the 138 kDa peptide fragment ions matched human collagen alpha-1 (III) chain (CO3A1) with Mascot algorithm analysis giving a score of 65 (p< 0.05). Mass fingerprint data sets obtained from the 250 kDa peptide fragment ions matched human chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) with Mascot algorithm analysis giving a score of 57 (p< 0.05). Nitration-induced alterations of CSPG4 activity can thus possibly lead to decreased fibrin degradation and enhanced complement system activity.
Conclusion: In vivo characteristics of these nitroproteins could be significant with regards to biomarker studies and understanding of disease mechanism in patients with PE. Future studies are aimed to understand the relevance of NO2Tyr modifications in CO3A1 and CSPG4 relating to changes in protein structure and function.
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Journal: Current Proteomics
Author(s): Yi Wang, Yun Li, Yujing Suo, Yu Min, Xiangyang Kang
Background: Polyploid breeding is a powerful approach for Populus genetic improvement because polyploid trees have valuable characteristics, including better timber quality and a higher degree of stress resistance compared with their full-sib diploids. However, the genetic mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown.
Objective: To better understand the proteomic changes between Populus allotriploids and diploids, we examined the proteomic profiles of allotriploid and diploid Populus by iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (MS).
Method: iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and MALDITOF/ TOF mass spectrometry (MS).
Results: Between the Populus allotriploid and the full-sib diploid, 932 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified. These DEPs were primarily involved in stress, defense, transportation, transcriptional and/or translational modification, and energy production. The pathway analysis indicated that most of the DEPs were implicated in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, nitrogen metabolism and glycolysis, and the ribosome assembly pathway. These data suggest high protein divergence between Populus allotriploids and diploids, and rapid changes during hybridization.
Conclusion: The results provide new data for further understanding of the mechanisms of polyploid trees that generally display increased height growth compared with their full-sib diploids.
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