This article by Dr. Rainer Schneider is published in Current Psychopharmacology, Volume 6, Issue 2, 2017
A new study testing the effectiveness of a patented essential oil inhaler (AromaStick®) extends the existing body of evidence that the direct application of specially formulated scents reduces stress and increases attention and concentration. Findings show that individual management of menstrual pain and back pain are facilitated and amplified when a specially formulated odor inhaler is used. In two field studies, participants’ usual pain management regimens were compared with an odor inhaler as an adjuvant. To account for non-specific effects, the order of the type of intervention was alternated. The odor inhaler improved pain dynamics like onset of pain and pain duration. In individuals suffering from chronic lower back pain, the inhaler also increased the pain alleviating effect of the individual pain management method. In both studies mood and well-being were considerably increased when the inhaler was applied. The easy-to-use inhaler is lipstick-sized and contains a suspended filter held in place in the middle of the tube to allow for a full flow to the nose.
These findings have important ramifications. Not only do they underscore the biological importance of the olfactory system for perception, cognition, and behavior, they also show that odors may be used in a pre-clinical context to either assist pharmacologic treatment or complement non-pharmacologic pain management. To render odors relevant for therapeutic purposes, however, distinct functional properties like molecule concentration and satiation of the inhaled air are of utmost importance. In conventional aromatherapeutic treatments, diffusing odors into the ambient air does not suffice to transport the odor molecules to the sensory system in high enough concentrations. Instead, it requires full satiation of the inhaled air with the odor to induce a physiological effect that extends mere pleasantness qualities of essential oils.
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Journal: Current Psychopharmacology
Psychiatric polypharmacy is defined as the use of two or more drugs in the treatment of a psychiatric condition. It is widely prevalent in clinical practice. The rationale for polypharmacy is not clear. Etiologic factors are patient demographics (age, gender, race, low socioeconomic status), personality disorder, psychiatric conditions (psychosis, schizophrenia, affective or mood disorders), comorbidities, severity of disease, treatment- refractoriness, prescribing practice, inpatient or outpatient setting, concern for reduction of extra-pyramidal and other sideeffects. Among children and adolescents’ the polypharmacy correlates are age (13 -15 years), male gender, caucasian race, low socio-economic status, medicaid or public insurance, disability, and foster care or child custody outside of biological family. Pediatric polypharmacy is also associated with a diagnosis of behavioral disorder, autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, conduct disorder/ oppositional defiant disorder, personality disorder, violence, tics, psychosis, affective and mood disorder.
The concurrent administration of multiple drugs increases the risk of drug interactions and adverse effect including morbidity and mortality. Psychiatric polypharmacy is also associated with cumulative toxicity, poor medication adherence and treatment non-compliance. Thus, psychiatric polypharmacy poses a significant public health problem. However, not all polypharmacy is harmful. Polypharmacy is proven to be beneficial in patients with psychotic, mood or affective disorder, concurrently having dual diagnosis with substance abuse, personality disorder and certain medical conditions including thyroid, pain or seizure disorder. Combination therapy with different class of drugs (antidepressants or antipsychotics) with different mechanism of action have beneficial therapeutic consequences. Therefore, a better understanding of physicians’ rationale for polypharmacy, patient tolerability and effectiveness of prescribing strategy is needed to guide practitioners and to inform the development of evidence based treatment guidelines. Here we review the problem of polypharmacy in psychiatric patients, describe possible etiologic factors, associated consequences and provide recommendations for promoting beneficial polypharmacy and reducing harmful polypharmacy in clinical practice.
Background: Pharmacological management of geriatric patients in acute settings is complex due to the presence of medical comorbidities, risk of drug-drug interactions, and potential patient sensitivity to side effects.
Objectives: This article will review the basic pharmacologic principles of management of older adults in acute settings.
Method: The aforementioned principles will be described and illustrated with two clinical examples. These principles include prioritizing the safety of patients and staff; obtaining a history that is as complete as possible, in order to support the working diagnosis; using the lowest medication dose that controls the symptoms; closely monitoring for side effects and drug-drug interactions; minimizing polypharmacy and discontinuing medications that are no longer necessary; double-checking all orders, so as to avoid medication errors; and involving the patients family and caregivers in treatment planning. Additionally, agents with anticholinergic properties, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics, and opioids should be used cautiously in older individuals, particularly those with dementia. Practical tips, formulations, dosages, and selected adverse effects of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers used with geriatric patients in acute settings are included.
Results: This clinical review will be useful for psychiatrists and other clinicians who treat older adults in acute medical settings.
Today, on the 17th of October 2016, we raise awareness about the Trauma and related disorders and their possible treatments. Bentham Science Publishers has various research journals dedicated to the Trauma and related disorders. The most significant are;
Current Psychopharmacology publishes peer-reviewed expert reviews, original research articles and single topic guest edited issues on all aspects of pre-clinical and clinical research in psychopharmacology. The journal aims to be the leading forum for expert review articles in the field. The journal also accepts high-level original research articles on outstanding topics of preclinical and clinical psychopharmacology. Data must be published for the first time in Current Psychopharmacology.
For details on the articles, please visit this link :: http://bit.ly/2bXM1cE