For article details, visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/145618
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Contributed Article: “The Neonatal Immune System: General Concepts And Clinical Correlations“
Contributed Article: “IL-27: Friend Or Foe in the Autoimmune Diseases“
Journal: Infectious Disorders – Drug Targets
The inadequate benefits of the existing therapies and the new insights into the pathophysiology of inflammatory airway diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma have led to the breakthrough of newer targets and innovative compounds as the treatment alternatives. The enhanced interpretation of immune cell signalling and signal transduction pathways at the molecular level involved in this process allows the selection of new therapeutic targets and designing of new molecules to combat such multifactorial diseases. Pertaining to the marked variability in type of inflammation observed in their disease phenotypes, the blockade of a particular receptor or mediator yielding strong restorative effect in one patient may not be significant to other. Therefore, their management requires the prompt and phenotype specific optimized drug therapies and development of new and improved molecular compounds targeting the immune cell signalling. This whole process including the approval of such compounds as the standard drug therapies is time taking, expensive and complicated task. It ranges from the selection of novel anti-inflammatory drug target to the final approval of biologically active restorative molecules. Grounded on this, the current review gives a comprehensive idea of the basic immunological network involved in these inflammatory airway diseases at the cellular level along with the discussion of their potential therapeutic targets. It also follows brief over viewing of the drug development process generally employed for the exploration of such innovative targets leading to the discovery of novel anti-inflammatory molecules for these inflammatory airway diseases.
To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/144228
Author(s): Amedeo Amedei, Domenico Prisco and Mario M. D’Elios
Abstract: The response of the body to cancer is not a unique mechanism and has many parallels with inflammation and wound healing. Unresolved inflammation generates a microenvironment favorable for cellular transformation and the growth of cancer cells. Chronic tissue damage triggers a repair response that includes the production of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines and chemokines have a crucial role in cancer-related inflammation with consequent, direct and indirect effects on the proliferative and invasive properties of tumor cells. In view of the multifactorial functions of cytokines and chemokines in tumorigenesis, the elucidation of their roles will further advance our understanding of the patho-physiological processes of tumor development and highlights potential innovative anti-cancer strategies.Despite recent advances, main anti-cancer therapies, namely surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, are limited in their ability to treat minimal and metastatic residual disease. Furthermore, the benefit of conventional therapies is often limited by collateral damage to normal tissues. Immunotherapy is a new avenue of cancer treatment being investigated by researchers and clinicians for different cancer types.The aim of this paper is to analyze the recent patents and scientific reviews on the major cytokine/chemokine pathways involved in cancer immunotherapy and discuss their basic biology, clinical relevance and potential directions for future anti-cancer therapeutic applications.
This article is from the journal Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discover
Author(s): Terry M. Fredeking, Jorge E. Zavala-Castro, Pedro Gonzalez-Martinez, William Moguel-Rodríguez, Ernesto C. Sanchez, Michael J. Foster and Fredi A. Diaz-Quijano
Objective: To determine the effect of doxycycline treatment on cytokine levels, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), and mortality in dengue patients at high risk of complication.
Methods: A group of dengue hemorrhagic fever patients (n=231) were randomized to receive either standard supportive care or supportive care in addition to oral doxycycline twice daily for 7 days. Dengue virus infection was confirmed by PCR using multiple primers. Serum samples were obtained at days 0, 3, 5 and 7 and tested for levels of TNF and IL-6.
Results: Doxycycline-treated group presented a 46% lower mortality than that observed in the untreated group (11.2% [13/116] vs 20.9% [24/115], respectively, p=0.05). Moreover, administration of doxycycline resulted in a significant (p<0.01) decrease in levels of TNF and IL-6 versus controls in the tests performed during follow-up (day 3, 5 and 7). Patients who died in both groups possessed significantly (p<0.01) higher levels of TNF and IL-6 compared to those who survived at all-time points.
Conclusion: The above findings suggest that doxycycline can provide a clinical benefit to dengue patients at high risk of complications. This effect could be mediated by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine levels.
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This article is taken from the journal Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery
Volume 4, 3 Issues, 2014
Recent Patents on Biomarkers publishes review and research articles, and guest edited thematic issues on important recent patents on biomarkers. The coverage includes novel biomarkers in basic, medical, environmental, and pharmaceutical research. A selection of important and recent patents on biomarkers is also included in the journal. The journal is essential reading for all researchers involved in biomarker research and discovery. The journal also covers recent research (where patents have been registered) in fast emerging patent biomarker applications; discovery and validation are covered for drug discovery, clinical development and molecular diagnostics.
Chemical Abstracts, MediaFinder®-Standard Periodical Directory, J-Gate, PubsHub, CABI.
For more details, visit: http://benthamscience.com/journal/index.php?journalID=rpbm