1 in 8 women in the US will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime.
In 2018 alone, an estimated 266,120 new cases of breast cancer were diagnosed nationwide. As the numbers of new cases grow, the support network of women who suffer from breast cancer grows. In their ever-increasing numbers, the many women diagnosed with this disease face an arduous physical and emotional journey on their road to recovery, and along the way, many suffer from depression, anxiety, and body image issues.
Regardless of the prevalence of body image issues, anxiety, and depression in women who are suffering from breast cancer, there aren’t a lot of resources available for those afflicted. A recent study suggests it’s time to right that wrong. The study, published by Bentham Science, focused on Dr. Fausto Meriggi and his team at Fondazione Poliambulanza di Brescia who studied the effects of psychotherapeutic and educational groups on depression, anxiety, and body image issues among women suffering from breast cancer.
This study was published in Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials, a journal published by Bentham Science. Bentham Science continues their work in the Middle East and North Africa, bringing education materials and increased accessibility to the region.
“DISCOVERY OF NEW MEDICATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION COMORBID WITH INFLAMATORY DISEASES”
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent neuropsychiatric disease that causes profound social and economic burdens. The impact of MDD is compounded by the limited therapeutic efficacy and delay of weeks to months of currently available medications. These issues highlight the need for more efficacious and faster-acting treatments to alleviate the burdens of MDD. Recent breakthroughs demonstrate that certain drugs, including ketamine and scopolamine, produce rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in MDD patients. Moreover, preclinical work has shown that the antidepressant actions of ketamine and scopolamine in rodent models are caused by an increase of extracellular glutamate, elevated BDNF, activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) cascade, and increased number and function of spine synapses in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we review studies showing that both ketamine and scopolamine elicit rapid antidepressant effects through converging molecular and cellular mechanisms in the PFC. In addition, we discuss evidence that selective antagonists of NMDA and muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor subtypes (i.e., NR2B and M1-AChR) in the PFC produce comparable antidepressant responses. Furthermore, we discuss evidence that ketamine and scopolamine antagonize inhibitory interneurons in the PFC leading to disinhibition of pyramidal neurons and increased extracellular glutamate that promotes the rapid antidepressant responses to these agents. Collectively, these studies indicate that specific NMDA and mACh receptor subtypes on GABAergic interneurons are promising targets for novel rapid-acting antidepressant therapies.
Background & Objective: A number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and, to some extent, depression, involve dysregulation of the brain dopamine systems. The etiology of these diseases is multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors. Evidence suggests that inadequate levels of n-3 (omega- 3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the brain may represent a risk factor for these disorders. These fatty acids, which are derived from the diet, are a major component of neuronal membranes and are of particular importance in brain development and function. Low levels of n-3 PUFAs in the brain affect the brain dopamine systems and, when combined with appropriate genetic and other factors, increase the risk of developing these disorders and/or the severity of the disease. This article reviews the neurobiology of n-3 PUFAs and their effects on dopaminergic function.
Conclusion: Clinical studies supporting their role in the etiologies of diseases involving the brain dopamine systems and the potential of n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of these disorders are discussed.
Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/161234/article
Journal: Current Psychiatry Reviews
This paper describes an animal (rat) model for the study of Bipolar Disorder (BD) in humans. The paper presents research, previously unpublished, conducted over more than 25 years. The model is derived from a natural genetic variant discovered in the rat population; these rats having been all brothers and sisters (littermates) from a single litter that was observed to be hyperactive in the home cage. The original animals were first inbred and then the offsprings were selectively-bred for more than 50 generations; this line of rats that proved to be a model for BD was named the Hyperactive (HYPER) rat.
Findings presented here indicate that this rat model shows similarity to human BD with respect to the four criteria used to judge/validate any animal model of a human psychological/ psychiatric disorder: (1) etiology, (2) symptomatology, (3) underlying pathophysiology, and (4) responsiveness to treatments that are effective for the human disorder. To summarize, HYPER rats mimic manic behavior by showing an outburst of extreme hyperactivity that lasts for several days after being exposed to a stressor, and also can show pronounced and prolonged post-stress depression of home-cage activity; moreover, critical for modeling BD, HYPER rats assessed for 2-4 months show “cycling” between manic-like outbursts and depression. (Note: prolonged depression occurs in HYPER rats after a single acute stressor event and therefore represents the first rat model to meet the DSM criterion for appropriate duration of depressive symptoms [persisting for more than 14 days] following a discrete precipitating event). The HYPER rat also manifests other characteristics seen in human BD – high levels of anxiety, a hyper-responsive pituitary-adrenal axis, elevated consumption of alcohol, anhedonia (indicated by reduced propensity to consume highly palatable sucrose solutions), cognitive differences from normal animals, abnormal midbrain dopaminergic transmission, and skin lesions that point to genetic similarity to humans with BD. Finally, the behavioral abnormalities of HYPER rats that mimic BD also respond to drugs used in the treatment of BD in humans; their manic-like outburst of extreme hyperactivity when exposed to stress is blocked by treatment with lithium or valproate. Lithium treatment also reduces “cycling” of HYPER rats that results in fewer cycles and less severe cycling. The HYPER rat model shows the most extensive list of similarities to human BD reported to date. Insofar as this model was not produced experimentally but instead arose as a natural genetic variant, thereby reproducing human BD in this important respect, this would seem to add considerably to its attraction as a model of BD. The promise of the HYPER rat is that it embodies critical aspects of human BD in a rodent.A Summary Table listing all phenomena observed in the HYPER rat relevant to human BD can be found near the conclusion of this article.In view of the behavioral similarities shown by the HYPER rat to critical behavioral characteristics of BD in humans, the HYPER rat would seem extremely useful as a means to test/screen potential new treatments for BD. Additionally, apparent similarities of pathophysiology and indications of similar genetics of the HYPER rat to human BD supports its study to look for underlying causes of BD, and also its use in genetic investigations where it can be employed using some of the latest techniques, such as transcriptomics and RNA-Seq analysis, that are presently not possible in humans.
Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/151319
Author(s): Laura Orsolini, Carmine Tomasetti, Alessandro Valchera, Felice Iasevoli, Elisabetta Filomena Buonaguro, Michele Fornaro,Annastasia L.C. Fiengo, Giovanni Martinotti, Federica Vellante, Ilaria Matarazzo, Roberta Vecchiotti, Giampaolo Perna, Marco Di Nicola,Alessandro Carano, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Domenico De Berardis
Background: Vortioxetine (VRX) is a multimodal antidepressant that acts as serotonin (5HT) transporter inhibitor as well as 5HT3A and 5HT7 receptors antagonist, 5HT1A and 5HT1B receptors partial agonist. It was recently approved in the US and the EU for the treatment of adult patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).
Objective: The present article aims at systematically reviewing findings of the published and unpublished research on the pharmacological properties, efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral VRX in the treatment of MDD.
Method: A systematic review, in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration and the PRISMA guidelines, was conducted searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, by combining the following keyterms: ((vortioxetine OR LU AA21004 OR brintellix) AND (antidepressant OR depression OR major depressive disorder), without language/time restrictions. Further studies were retrieved from reference listing of relevant articles or manual search. Preclinical and clinical studies (RCT and open label trials) were here retrieved.
Results: Several placebo-controlled and active-treatment studies demonstrated the antidepressant efficacy and tolerability of VRX in adult patients affected with MDD. In addition, VRX seems to own procognitive activity. VRX seems generally well tolerated, without significant cardiovascular or weight gain effects. The most common adverse events reported included nausea, vomiting, hyperhidrosis, headache, dizziness, somnolence, diarrhoea and dry mouth.
Conclusion: Overall, placebo controlled and active treatment trials support that VRX is effective and well tolerated in MDD. Its combined serotonin reuptake inhibition with agonism, partial agonism and antagonism of a number of receptors might provide a broader spectrum of antidepressant activity than currently available agents.
To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/146673/article