Author(s): Ijeoma Okeigwe, Erica E. Marsh*.
Infertility has become an important public health issue, with over 12% of the U.S. population being affected. Moreover, the role of race and ethnicity has become increasingly recognized as an important contributor to health outcomes. Despite in vitro fertilization (IVF) playing a significant role in helping many women achieve their reproductive goals, data show disparities in IVF outcomes among racial and ethnic minority groups. This review examines the literature on disparities in IVF outcomes among black, Asian, and Hispanic women. Data analyzed show that black and Asian women have decreased clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates compared to white women and increased rates of pregnancy loss and fetal growth restriction. While consistent findings have not been identified among Hispanic women, likely due to inadequate studies among Hispanic women, limited epidemiologic data suggest decreased clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates among Hispanic women, while clinic based studies show no differences in outcomes when compared to white women. The biological plausibility associated with these disparate outcomes suggests a role for obesity, fibroids, and impaired endometrial hormonal milieu affecting outcomes among black women, while variation in ovarian reserve and endometrial hormonal milieu may contribute to poorer outcomes among Asian women.
Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/150575/article
Psychiatric disorders are becoming increasingly common throughout the world, from which anxiety disorders particularly stand out. All ages of people can be found affected by such issues and often are recommended to visit psychiatrists for help. Teenagers show signs of anxiety more than adults as they find themselves under stress, burdens and pressures. The causes may be innate or develop over time and hamper the lives of such adolescents.
Researchers are trying to study in depth how the psychiatric issues show up in the adolescents in terms of gender, ethnicity and other segmentations. A study was conducted in 2007 and 2008 in the schools of USA to find out patterns and classifications of anxiety-struck adolescents. The results of the study revealed that girls suffered with various types of anxiety much more than the boys. They were found to have generalized anxiety, social anxiety, separation anxiety, panic disorder, and school avoidance. There were boys who were affected as well but the numbers were less than the girls overall.
Further study revealed that there wasn’t a very significant difference among various ethnic groups as each group had certain cases of anxiety patients. But when it came to the ones who needed professional help, Hispanic people were more likely to suffer compared to Caucasian and African American people. The study has potential to gain great attention and can be very helpful for the researchers to build their future research works on.
It is published in Adolescent Psychiatry journal as the article, Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Anxiety Disorders During Adolescence.
Author(s): Cheri A. Levinson and Leigh C Brosof.
Abstract: The early literature on eating disorders focused primarily on young, White women in the United States and Europe. However, there is alarming recent evidence showing that there are increasing rates of eating disorders both in the United States among non-European American ethnic groups and across the globe in previously non- Westernized countries. Some researchers attribute these increased prevalence rates to the growing role of Westernization across the world. It has also been suggested that eating disorders, specifically bulimia nervosa, may be culture-bound syndromes. Indeed, one of the primary theories behind the development of eating disorders is the socio-cultural model of eating disorders, which posits that eating disorders develop from a mixture of social and cultural risk factors. The current review focuses on the cultural and ethnic differences and similarities of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors among (a) diverse ethnic groups in the United States (African American, Hispanic American, and Asian American) and (b) women in several Asian countries (Japan, China, India, and Pakistan). Specifically, we focus on cultural differences in excessive dieting, restriction, fears of fatness, body dissatisfaction, purging, and bingeing, which are core behavioral expressions of disordered eating that are common across the eating disorders. We pay special attention to socio-cultural factors and values present in each of these ethnic and cultural groups, which may influence the expression of these behaviors. Finally, we end by discussing the clinical implications that stem from the differences and similarities in these behaviors across groups and cultures.
To access the article, please visit: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-psychiatry-reviews/volume/12/issue/2/page/163/