Background: Curcumin is a curcuminoid, which is an active constituent of turmeric and is obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, family Zingiberaceae. Curcumin modulates the activity of various transcription factors and regulates the expression of inflammatory enzymes, cell survival proteins, adhesion molecules and cytokines by binding to a variety of proteins and inhibiting the activity of various kinases. Curcumin falls in the BCS class IV drug, with poor solubility and poor permeability which makes it very challenging to utilize the maximum therapeutic potential of this moiety
Objective: The major aim of the study was to enhance transdermal penetration of curcumin via ethosomal gel and to overcome the barriers of poor permeability of transdermal drug delivery.
Methods: Curcumin loaded ethosomes were prepared with varying quantities of ethanol and soya lecithin by the cold method and were optimised based on entrapment efficiency, vesicular size and Ex-vivo studies. Optimised ethosomal formulation was further incorporated into a gel and was evaluated. Ex-vivo studies were performed with the ethosomal gel of curcumin and was compared with simple drug solution.
Results: Prepared ethosomal system showed a vesicle size ranging from 211 to 320 nm with spherical, smooth surface and entrapment efficiency of 87 to 91%. Optimised ethosomal system (ET3) was incorporated into gel and was further evaluated.
Conclusion: The findings of the research work suggested that the ethosomal gel holds excellent potential for transdermal delivery of curcumin. Read Now: https://bit.ly/3BYYN5A
Background: The success story of liposomes in the treatment of systemic infectious diseases and various carcinomas lead the scientists to the innovation of elastic vesicles to achieve similar success through transdermal route. In this direction, ethosomes and transfersomes were developed with the objective to design the vesicles that could pass through the skin. However, there is a lack of systematic review outlining the principles, method of preparation, latest advancement and applications of ethosomes and transfersomes. This review covers various aspects that would be helpful to scientists in understanding advantages of these vesicular systems and designing a unique nano vesicular delivery system.
Methods: Structured search of bibliographic databases for previously published peer-reviewed research papers was explored and data was culminated in terms of principle of these vesicular delivery systems, composition, mechanism of actions, preparation techniques, methods for their characterization and their application.
Results: A total of 182 papers including both, research and review articles, were included in this review in order to make the article comprehensive and readily understandable. The mechanism of action and composition of ethosomes and transfersomes was extensively discussed. Various methods of preparation such as, rotary film evaporation method, reverse phase evaporation method, vortex/ sonication method, ethanol injection method, freeze thaw methods, along with their advantages has been discussed. It was also discussed that both these elastic nanocarriers offer unique advantages of ferrying the drug across membranes, sustaining drug release as well as protecting the encapsulated bio actives from external environment. The enhanced bioavailability and skin penetration of ethosomes as compared to conventional vesicular delivery systems is attributed to the presence of ethanol in the bilayers while that for transfersomes accrues due to their elasticity along with their ability to retain their shape because of the presence of edge activators. Successful delivery of synthetic drugs as well as phytomedicines has been extensively reported through these vesicles.
Conclusion: Though these vesicular systems offer a good potential for rational drug delivery, a thoughtfully designed process is required to optimize the process variables involved. Industrial scale production of efficacious, safe, cost effective and stable formulations of both these delivery systems appears to be a pre-requisite to ensure their utility as the trans-dermal vehicles.