“Metabolic Syndrome impact on molecular, and cellular functions in patients affected by heart failure: therapeutic, diagnostic and clinical applications”
In this Special Issue we would try to bring the two major diseases together by focusing on common molecular pathways, mechanisms and subsequently on clinical outcomes. We may speculate that, the identification of mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of MS and its CV complications may represent an area of significant research efforts, attracting scientists and clinicians from a diverse range of fields including biochemistry, pharmacology, internal medicine, cardiology and geriatrics among several others.Our Special Issue hypothesis is that, the final goal in the near future will be to find treatments better tailored to MS patients with HF using a personalized–medicine approach. Therefore, here we invite investigators to submit to this Special Issue both original research articles, clinical trials and reviews having the purpose to address novel diagnostic tools or new therapeutic treatments for MS and HF. For more details please visit:https://benthamscience.com/journal-files/special-issue-details/CPD-SII20181228-01.pdf
Theme: Life Isn’t Measured in Minutes but in Heartbeats
Cardiology Congress 2019 Conference will be an investigation of new research Innovation in the field of Cardiology and spread the most recent advancements in heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. Argument on new technology enhancement in the field of Cardiovascular Disease and current practices in cardiovascular therapy, Cardiac progenitor cells, Hypertension for the primary care clinician, Stent procedure, Balloon Valvuloplasty, Coronary thrombectomy, Noninvasive cardiac imaging, Heart failure, Congestive heart failure, Sports Cardiology and more. Differentiating heart disease and other cardiac conditions constitute a team of healthcare professionals, of which the Cardiology technologist is a key player.
This conference will provide a comprehensive update on all medical, surgical, interventional, and electrophysiological topics in cardiology and also provides the opportunity for clinicians, scientists, doctors and researchers from all over the world to gather and learn the latest advances in the field of cardiology and healthcare and to exchange scientific ideas and experiences in a distinctive environment.
Hypertensive Heart Disease and the Role of Aldosterone Antagonists
Author(s): Chanwit Roongsritong, Ashwani Kumar, Leigh Ann Jenkins.
Hypertensive heart disease (HHD) encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities resulting from structural and functional adaptations to chronic pressure overload. The clinical manifestations of HHD range from asymptomatic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) to symptomatic heart failure. HHD has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and all cause mortality. However, regression of LVH by antihypertensive therapy has been associated with improved outcome. The pathogenesis of HHD involves various hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic factors including neurohormone, aldosterone. Aldosterone enhances myocardial fibrosis through its direct effect on mineralocorticoid and angiotensin II receptors leading to excessive collagen deposition within the myocardium. Increased myocardial fibrosis is a major determinant of hypertensive remodeling and the transition to heart failure. Aldosterone antagonists are effective antihypertensive agents. Additionally, they have been shown to improve LV structural remodeling, systolic and diastolic function in patients with HHD independent of its effect on blood pressure. Data on long-term benefit of these agents have thus far been limited to patients with advanced systolic heart failure and post-acute myocardial infarction LV systolic dysfunction. The potential benefit of aldosterone antagonists in patients with heart failure and preserved LV systolic function is currently being investigated in large scale clinical trials.
The Role of Myocardial Collagen Network in Hypertensive Heart Disease
Author(s): Javier Diez, Begona Lopez, Arantxa Gonzalez, Ramon Querejeta.
It is time to recognize that the quality, not quantity, of myocardium in hypertensive heart disease is responsible for adverse cardiovascular events. Experimental and clinical available data indicate that myocardial fibrosis due to the exaggerated accumulation of collagen type I and type III fibers predisposes to an enhanced risk of diastolic and/or systolic ventricular dysfunction, symptomatic heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and arrhythmia in patients with hypertensive heart disease. Thus, management of these patients must not only focus on detection and regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Far more sensible are interventions aimed to detect and target hypertensive myocardial fibrosis. The available data on the use of biochemical and/or imaging methodologies to address excessive accumulation of collagen fibers in the myocardium of hypertensive patients are promising. On the other hand, preliminary data suggest that the goal of reducing myocardial fibrosis is achievable in patients with hypertensive heart disease treated with specific anti hypertensive agents. Collectively, these findings set the stage for larger trials where-in noninvasive measures and reparative strategies of myocardial fibrosis to prevent heart failure could prove useful.
Author(s): Marine Pingeon, Bruno Charlier, Federica De Lise, Francesca Mensitieri, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Viviana Izzo*
Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in developed countries, and its social and economic burden is expected to increase dramatically over the next decades. Despite significative improvement in the pharmacological treatment, and the huge advances in prevention, the quest for new molecular targets and for novel, more efficient and personalized therapies is still a priority for this group of pathologies.
Objective: The paramount complexity of the metabolic networks responsible for the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease is highlighted by the wide and diverse array of new molecular targets recently described in literature. In this brief review, we focused our interest on a subset of promising molecular targets for the development of new pharmacological treatments specific for cardiac diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart failure and myocardial infarction.
Conclusion: The global quest for new molecular targets for the treatment of cardiac diseases is leading to an impressive amount of records in the more recent literature. Although several promising molecular pathways have been identified so far, great caution should be used in considering all these targets effective in promoting the production of new drugs. The identification of suitable therapeutic targets is in fact an ongoing challenge that often lacks enough pre-clinical and clinical studies, which hinders the effective utilization of several new drugs due to a lack of efficacy or induction of safety liabilities.
Abstract: Improved treatments for heart failure patients will require the development of novel therapeutic strategies that target basal disease mechanisms. Disrupted cardiomyocyte Ca2+ homeostasis is recognized as a major contributor to the heart failure phenotype, as it plays a key role in systolic and diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmogenesis, and hypertrophy and apoptosis signaling. In this review, we outline existing knowledge of the involvement of Ca2+homeostasis in these deficits, and identify four promising targets for therapeutic intervention: the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, the Na+-Ca2+exchanger, the ryanodine receptor, and t-tubule structure. We discuss experimental data indicating the applicability of these targets that has led to recent and ongoing clinical trials, and suggest future therapeutic approaches.
Inflammaging in Skin and Other Tissues – The Roles of Complement System and Macrophage
Author(s): Yong Zhuang and John Lyga
Pages 153-161 (9)
Inflammaging refers to a continuous, low-grade inflammation associated with aging. Such chronic inflammatory response could build up with time and gradually causes tissue damage. It is considered as one of the driving forces for many age-related diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and skin aging. There is mounting evidence that indicates aging is driven by the pro-inflammatory cytokines and substances produced by our body’s innate immune system. The macrophage and complement system, two important components of innate immune system, have attracted more and more attention since they appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammaging-associated diseases, such as AMD and atherosclerosis. This paper will review what we know about these two innate immune systems in the pathogenesis of AMD, atherosclerosis and skin aging.
Avon Global R&D, 1 Avon Place, Suffern, NY, 10901, USA.
Acne Vulgaris: an Inflammatory Disease Even Before the Onset of Clinical Lesions
Author(s): Marco Alexandre Rocha, Caroline Sousa Costa and Edileia Bagatin
Pages 162-167 (6)
Acne is a chronic self-limited disease, which affects mostly teenagers, without gender difference. In recent years, the incidence has increased in female adults. The factors involved in this epidemiological observation are still under discussion in the literature.Clinically, acne is characterized by different types of lesions. The disease affects the regions rich in sebaceous glands (face, chest and upper back). The clinical lesions are: open and closed comedones, erythematous papules, pustules, nodules and different types of scars. Taking into consideration the general concept of inflammation (redness, pain, heat and loss of function), acne is traditionally classified as non-inflammatory (open and closed comedones) and inflammatory (other primary lesions). With the knowledge advancement this concept seems to be wrong and therefore acne would be an inflammatory disease even before the onset of their clinical lesions.
Escola Paulista de Medicina — Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), Brazil.
Effect of Botanicals on Inflammation and Skin Aging: Analyzing the Evidence
Author(s): Amanda Suggs, Patricia Oyetakin-White and Elma D. Baron
Pages 168-176 (9)
The skin and its immune system manifest a decline in physiologic function as it undergoes aging. External insults such as ultraviolet light exposure cause inflammation, which may enhance skin aging even further leading to cancer and signs of photoaging. There is a potential role for botanicals as an adjunct modality in the prevention of skin aging. Numerous over-the-counter anti-aging products are commercially available, many of which boast unverified claims to reduce stress, inflammation and correct signs of aging. In this article we reviewed the scientific literature for data on frequently published “anti-inflammaging” additives such as vitamins A, C and E and green tea. We also analyzed the evidence available on five promising ingredients commonly found in anti-aging products, namely, argan oil, rosemary, pomegranate, Coenzyme Q10, and Coffeeberry. Though there may be an increasing amount of scientific data on a few of these novel botanicals, in general, there remains a lack of clinical data to support the anti-aging claims made.
Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center 11100 Euclid Avenue, Lakeside 3500, Mailstop 5028, Cleveland, OH 44106-5028, USA.
Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging
Author(s): Ying Chen and John Lyga
Pages 177-190 (14)
The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology.
Global R&D, Avon Products. 1 Avon Place, Suffern, NY 10901, USA.
Biological Treatments for SAPHO Syndrome: An Update
Author(s): Davide Firinu, Giuseppe Murgia, Maria Maddalena Lorrai, Maria Pina Barca, Maria Monica Peralta, Paolo Emilio Manconi and Stefano R. del Giacco
Pages 199-205 (7)
Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis and Osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is a rare and often unrecognized disease with prominent inflammatory cutaneous and articular manifestations. Since the identification of the syndrome many immunosuppressive drugs have been used for the management of SAPHO, with variable results. The use of anti- TNF-α agents as a therapeutic option for SAPHO cases unresponsive or refractory to conventional drugs, demonstrated their efficacy for bone, skin and joints manifestations. TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and pivotal regulator of other cytokines, including IL-1 β , IL-6 and IL-8, involved in inflammation, acute-phase response induction and chemotaxis. IL-1 inhibition strategies with Anakinra have proven their efficacy as first and second line treatment. We herein review the literature concerning the use of biological drugs in patients with SAPHO syndrome. In addition, we describe for the first time the use of Ustekinumab, an antibody against the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, after failure of multiple drugs including anti-TNF-α and Anakinra. This anti-IL12/IL23 agent could be a promising therapeutic option, also considering the opportunity to interfere with the IL23/TH17 pathway, which we recently found disturbed. Furthermore, a rationale emerges for the use of the new anti-IL-1 antagonists or the IL-17 blockade, in particular for the most difficult-to-treat SAPHO cases.
Department of Medical Sciences “M. Aresu”, Unit of Internal Medicine, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Cagliari, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria, SS 554-Bivio Sestu, I-09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy.
Cardiac and Muscular Involvement in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies: Noninvasive Diagnostic Assessment and the Role of Cardiovascular and Skeletal Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Author(s): Sophie Mavrogeni, Petros P. Sfikakis, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Genovefa Kolovou and George D. Kitas
Pages 206-216 (11)
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are rare autoimmune diseases and include dermatomyositis, polymyositis, necrotizing myopathy and inclusion body myositis; they are characterized by inflammation of skeletal muscle and other internal organs and may potentially lead to irreversible damage and death. Only a small percentage of IIM has clinically overt cardiac disease; however, heart involvement is one of the leading causes of death and therefore, early detection remains a challenge.Biochemical markers and non-invasive methods such as the electrocardiogram and echocardiography have a role in diagnosis, but lack sensitivity in identifying patients with early, sublinical cardiac abnormalities. Endomyocardial and skeletal muscle biopsies are very useful, but invasive techniques and cannot be used for routine follow-up. Cardiac and skeletal magnetic resonance imaging, due to their capability to perform tissue characterization, has emerged as novel techniques for the early detection and follow-up of myocardial and skeletal muscle tissue changes (oedema, inflammation, fibrosis) in IIM. However, the clinical implications of using these approaches and their cost /benefit ratio require further evaluation.
Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 50 Esperou Street, 175-61 P.Faliro, Athens, Greece.