Editors choice: Chronic Kidney Disease, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk: Insights and Associated Mechanistic Pathways

Author(s):Thaís Rodrigues Nogueira*Camila Santos Marreiros and Betânia de Jesus e Silva de Almendra Freitas


This study is a narrative review that aims to address the conceptual, characteristic, pathophysiological, and mechanistic aspects that define the profile of metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The objective was to investigate current knowledge and elucidate, through discussions on the topic, the main interrelated paths. This review was carried out unsystematically, from March to May 2020, by means of a survey of the literature indexed in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus (Elsevier®) databases. The scientific materials collected showed that the cross-talk between the diseases in question is mainly based on the conditions of resistance to insulin action, endothelial dysfunction, activation pathways of the Renin- Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, and adipokine imbalance, also emphasizing the influence of atherosclerotic events in kidney damage. Furthermore, it was reinforced that inflammatory processes play an important role in the worsening and evolution of the clinical condition of patients, especially when they have underlying pathologies chronically treated for subclinical inflammation. It is expected that more original research will propose investigating other possible interactions with a view to standardized treatment of these diseases or nutritional management.

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How to Keep a Kidney Healthy?

Kidneys are the most important organ of human body. It filters 180 liters of blood in a day. When it comes to components of the urinary system, kidneys are a multi-functional powerhouse of activity.

A good and healthy kidney means life in peace but if kidneys are not properly taken care of, then it can lead a human body to suffer immense pain, which in most cases results in Hemodialysis. In some cases kidney transplantation works; which is rare & after which a person needs to spend months in a sterilized room. We don’t usually see a nutritionist assuming we might not need to but in order to protect the inner components of our body we all must adhere to its importance. Negligence in eating & drinking habits also lead to kidney failure or malfunction.

Here are some tips to keep a kidney healthy:

  • Stay hydrated

Drinking plenty of fluid will help your kidneys function properly. Your urine should be straw-colored. If it’s any darker, that may be a sign of dehydration.

During hot weather in the summer, when travelling in hot countries, or when exercising strenuously, you need to drink more water than usual to make up for the fluid lost by sweating.

  • Eat healthy

A balanced diet ensures that you get all the minerals and vitamins your body needs. Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables and grains, such as whole wheat pasta, bread and rice. Don’t eat too salty or fatty food.

  • Watch your blood pressure

Have your blood pressure checked regularly. Raised blood pressure has no symptoms, but it can increase your risk of kidney and heart problems. A simple, quick and painless blood pressure check is available free of charge at your GP surgery and many high street pharmacies.

If your blood pressure is higher than it should be, your GP can suggest lifestyle changes or, if necessary, prescribe medication to reduce your blood pressure.

  • Avoid smoking

Try to stop smoking completely. Smoking excessively raises your blood pressure. High blood pressure is one of the most common causes of kidney disease.

  • Watch your weight

Being too heavy raises your blood pressure, which is bad for your kidneys. Try to keep yourself at a healthy weight by being active and not overeating. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, such as walking, cycling or swimming, every week.

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