National Youth HIV and AIDS Awareness Day | Special Discount Offer (From: 10th April, 2020 – To: 12th April, 2020)

 

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Editors Choice Article | Small Animal Models for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis: Proceedings of an NIAID Workshop

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

Author(s): Ramesh Akkina, Daniel L. Barber, Moses T. Bility, Karl-Dimiter Bissig, Benjamin J. Burwitz, Katrin Eichelberg, Janice J. Endsley, J. Victor Garcia, Richard Hafner, Petros C. Karakousis, Brent E. Korba, Rajen Koshy, Chris Lambros, Stephan Menne, Eric L. Nuermberger, Alexander Ploss, Brendan K. Podell, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Brigitte E. Sanders-Beer*, Selvakumar Subbian, Angela Wahl.

 

 

 

Graphical Abstract:

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Abstract:

The main advantage of animal models of infectious diseases over in vitro studies is the gain in the understanding of the complex dynamics between the immune system and the pathogen. While small animal models have practical advantages over large animal models, it is crucial to be aware of their limitations. Although the small animal model at least needs to be susceptible to the pathogen under study to obtain meaningful data, key elements of pathogenesis should also be reflected when compared to humans. Welldesigned small animal models for HIV, hepatitis viruses and tuberculosis require, additionally, a thorough understanding of the similarities and differences in the immune responses between humans and small animals and should incorporate that knowledge into the goals of the study. To discuss these considerations, the NIAID hosted a workshop on ‘Small Animal Models for HIV, Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis’ on May 30, 2019. Highlights of the workshop are outlined below.

 

To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/177698/article

Press Release | New book series aims to provide frontier reviews on anti-infective agents

 

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Frontiers in Anti-Infective Agents is a book series that focuses on antibiotics and vaccines, both current and new.

The series is essential reading for general readers, healthcare professionals, researchers and academicians actively involved in research on infectious diseases and anti-infective therapeutic drugs.

The first volume is a comprehensive documentation on major infectious diseases from tropical countries which pose a serious threat to global healthcare programs. These include diseases such as tuberculosis, AIDS, leishmaniasis (kala-azar), elephantiasis, malaria, leprosy, various fungal disorders and emergent viral diseases. Due to the widespread use of antibiotics, there is an emergence of drug resistant pathogens in many regions. Hence, there is a need to search for novel, cost-effective bioactive compounds that demonstrate high efficacy and low toxicity in human cells from unexplored ecosystems to combat emerging drug resistant pathogens. Chapters written for this volume focus on the pathogenesis and etiology of each of the mentioned diseases, updated WHO reports wherever applicable, conventional drugs and their pharmacokinetics as well as new approaches to develop anti-infective agents.

The authors also present a detailed report on multi-drug resistant pathogens (‘superbugs’) and new measures being taken up to eradicate them. Information about new antimicrobials (bioactive peptides and silk protein sericin) and the approaches taken by scientists and healthcare professionals for successful targeting of these molecules for human medicine. For more information, please visit: https://benthambooks.com/book/9789811432736/https://benthambooks.com/book/9789811432736/

About The Editors:

Dr. K. Tamreihao completed his PhD and Master of Science from the Department of Biochemistry, Manipur University, India. He is working as PDF in a project sponsored by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. His research interest lies in the area of plant growth promotion by actinobacteria and feather degradation by keratinolytic actinobacteria and the biofertilizing potential of degraded feathers.

Dr Saikat Mukherjee completed his M.Sc (Biotechnology) from Calcutta University and PhD from CSIR- Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata. He has participated in postdoctoral research programs in University of Geneva, Switzerland and Manipur University, India. His research expertise is in mitochondrial bioenergetics and purification of protein complexes from protozoal, human, bacterial and algal systems.

Prof. Debananda S. Ningthoujam earned his Masters of Science (Life Sciences) from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and PhD (Environmental Biotechnology) from NEERI, Nagpur. He is currently working as a Professor of Biochemistry at the university of Manipur. Prof. Ningthoujam is a life member of several scientific society including AMI, BRSI, SBC, ASM and ISCA. He is actively researching actinomycete biology and biotechnology and has several completed and ongoing projects to his credit. Six new actinomycete species have been reported from his lab. Prof. Ningthoujam has over 25 years of teaching experience and five research scholars have earned their PhDs under his mentorship. He has also supervised several PDF candidates.

READ FULL PRESS RELEASE TO FIND OUT MORE: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-12/bsp-nbs122319.php

Open Access Articles | Sexual Roles, Risk Sexual Behaviours, and HIV Prevalence among Men who Have Sex with Men Seeking HIV Testing in Changsha, China

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

Author(s): Yunxiao Lei, Kaili Zhang, Xueling Xiao, Chulei Tang, Xianhong Li, Honghong Wang*.

Graphical Abstract:

Abstract:

Background: HIV infection is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and sexual roles may be important factors related to it. This study aims to describe the sexual roles, risky sexual behaviors and HIV prevalence among MSM, and to determine associated factors for HIV prevalence.

Methods: A convenient sampling method was used to recruit participants in a non-government organization in Changsha, China. The participants were asked to complete a 38-item self-administered questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics and risky sexual behaviours before collecting blood samples for HIV testing. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were conducted with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 18.0 and other indexes were statistically described.

Results: A total of 601 MSMs who came to a local non-government organization for voluntary counseling and testing completed a pencil-and-paper survey and were tested for HIV. The overall HIV prevalence of this sample was 13.3%, and that of the bottoms (16.3%) was similar to the versatiles (15.9%) but higher than the tops (6.1%). Bivariate analyses showed that there were significant differences in age, marital status, monthly income, sexual orientation, age at first sex, sex of the first sex partner, sex with a woman in the last 6 months, oral sex with a man in the last 6 months and role of oral sex among 3 subgroups of MSM (p < 0.05). Multivariate analyses indicated that MSMs who played the role of either the bottoms or the versatiles were more likely to be HIV positive than the tops. While MSMs who used condoms in anal sex in the last 6 months, had sex with a woman in the last 6 months or had oral sex with a man in the last 6 months were less likely to be HIV positive.

Conclusion: Different sexual roles are associated with high-risk sexual behaviors among MSMs and their HIV infection status. Further research should target preventive interventions, and improve the effectiveness of the intervention according to the characteristics of the subgroups to reduce the HIV transmission among Chinese MSM.

 

Read out more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/163672

ARTICLE BY DISEASE – Anal Cancer: Focus on HIV-Positive Patients in the HAART Era

ARTICLE BY DISEASE ON “ANAL CANCER”

 

 

Abstract:

Anal cancer represents an increasing health problem, especially in immune-compromised patients, as HIVpositive patients. Notably, a significant higher incidence rate is reported among HIV infected patients with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To date, no randomised trial supports the correlation between existing screening strategies and reduced progression of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) to anal cancer or improved survival. Nevertheless, screening and treatment of AIN by topical agents should be implemented in high risk population. Data on invasive anal cancer treatment show that combined modality treatment (CMT) is the treatment of choice. Early reports on HIV-positive patients describe higher treatment toxicity and a relation with lower CD4 count and higher HIV viral load. More recently, reported outcomes seem to be similar in HIV-positive population and general population. Reports on a rise in local recurrence rates and in acute side effects along with a correlation with pre-treatment CD4 counts in HIV-positive patients, are not confirmed by all authors. The development of the first approved vaccine is a milestone in the field of anogenital cancers. However, many questions are still unresolved especially as concerns immunization in the setting of HIV infection.

 

 

For more details, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/94357/article

 

 

TESTIMONIAL BY MINAKSHI PRASAD!

Minakshi Prasad

 

Contributed Article: Virus Host Interactions: New Insights and Advances in Drug Development Against Viral Pathogens.

MOST ACCESSED ARTICLE – C-type Lectin Receptor: Old Friend and New Player – Medicinal Chemistry

Journal: Medicinal Chemistry

Author(s): Hai Hou*, Yahui Guo, Qing Chang, Tianming Luo, Xin Wu, Xueqiang Zhao

Graphical Abstract:

 

Abstract:

During the last two decades, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have been demonstrated to play key roles in initiating the host immune response against fungal infection. It is well established that CLRs, such as Dectin-1, Dectin-2, Dectin-3 and Mincle recognize the cell wall component from the infected microorganisms by using their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Upon stimulation, CLRs induce multiple signal transduction cascades through their own immunereceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) or interacting with ITAM-containing adaptor proteins such as FcRγ, which then lead to the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) through Syk- and CARD9-dependent pathway. Dissecting CLR signal cascades and their effects on host immune cells is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms in regulating host antifungal immunity. Recently, the activated CLRs including Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 are reported to undergo lysome-mediated degradation by an E3 ubiquitin ligase CBL-b. Moreover, structural analysis will help understand the molecular mechanism of these CLRs and provide clues to rational design for effective anti-fungal drugs. Overall, we summarize the current knowledge on activating and inhibitory CLRs and discuss how to boost host immune system to fight against invasive fungal infection.

 

To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/152316/article

World Aids Day 2017!

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World AIDS Day takes place on the 1st December each year. It’s an opportunity for people worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV, to show support for people living with HIV, and to commemorate those who have died from an AIDS-related illness.

Bentham Science publishes articles related to AIDS in its high impact journals including :

Current HIV Research

High Protein Intake Aggravates HIV

Today, 1st of December, is observed as World Aids Day to support the people suffering with AIDS caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). For the last few decades there has been great attention given to HIV/AIDS with focus on its occurrence, causes, growth, harmfulness and possible preventions and cure. Researchers around the world have joined arms to fight and eradicate this deadly disease.

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Studies have also shown that diet also has considerable impact on AIDS patients. Recent research done by Dr. Evgeny Vlad. Butorov from Municipal Center of HIV/AIDS prophylaxis, Surgut, Russian Federation, has shown that high intake of protein can aggravate things for the patients. The study was conducted on HIV-infected patients to assess how the dietary protein can help or hamper their conditions. Protein enhanced the growth of the virus, suppresses the human immune system and allows other viruses and bacteria to attack the patients. The study opens doors for further research on the impact of diet and also the development of treatments for this dangerous disease.

This study is published in Current HIV Research in the article, Impact of High Protein Intake on Viral Load and Hematological Parameters in HIV-infected Patients.

Highlighted Article – Evaluation of Salivary Melatonin Levels in HIV- Positive Patients – Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials

RRCT-Articles_12-4-Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel

http://benthamscience.com/journals/reviews-on-recent-clinical-trials/epub-ahead-of-print/

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