Current article: Could Polyphenolic Food Intake Help in the Control of Type 2 Diabetes? A Narrative Review of the Last Evidence

Author(s):Luigi FerraraMarko Joksimovic and Stefania D’Angelo*

Background: Diabetes is one of the most serious global public health concerns, imposing a significant burden on public health and socio-economic development, with type 2 diabetes accounting for 90 percent of individuals with the disease (T2D).

Introduction: Beyond the hereditary factor, there are several risk factors associated with the development of this syndrome; the lifestyle plays an increasingly predominant role in the development of the metabolic complications related to T2D and a significant role in the onset of this syndrome is played by an unbalanced diet. Polyphenolic food is a plant-based food, including vegetables, fruits, whole grains, tea, coffee, and nuts. In recent years, there has been growing evidence that polyphenols, due to their biological properties, may be used as nutraceuticals and supplementary treatments for various aspects of T2D. Polyphenols may influence glycemia and T2D through hypoglycemic properties, such as reduced insulin resistance, reduced fasting blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin value. Based on several in vitro, animal models, and some human studies, it has been detected that polyphenol-rich products modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, attenuate hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, improve adipose tissue metabolism, and alleviate oxidative stress and stress-sensitive signaling pathways and inflammatory processes.

Methods: This manuscript summarizes human clinical trials conducted within the last 5 years linking dietary polyphenols to T2D, with a focus on polyphenolic foods found in the Mediterranean diet.

Results: Intaking polyphenols and their food sources have demonstrated beneficial effects on insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Prospective studies have shown inverse associations between polyphenol intake and T2D. The Mediterranean diet and its key components, olive oil, nuts, and red wine, have been inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2D.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the intake of polyphenols may be beneficial for both insulin resistance and T2D risk. However, other human clinical studies are needed to evaluate the suitable dose and duration of supplementation with polyphenolic food in T2D patients.

Learn more: http://bit.ly/3EkSKIk

EDITOR’S CHOICE – Differences in Relative Levels of 88 microRNAs in Various Regions of the Normal Adult Human Brain – MicroRNA

Journal: MicroRNA

Author(s): Elena V. Filatova, Anelya Alieva, Maria I. Shadrina, Petr A. Slominsky.

Graphical Abstract:

 

Abstract:

Aim of Study: Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the 1990s, our knowledge about their biology has grown considerably. The increasing number of studies addressing the role of miRNAs in development and in various diseases emphasizes the need for a comprehensive catalogue of accurate sequence, expression and conservation information regarding the large number of miRNAs proposed recently in all organs and tissues. The objective of this study was to provide data on the levels of miRNA expression in 15 tissues of the normal human brain.

Materials and Methods: We conducted an analysis of the relative levels of 88 of the most abundantly expressed and best characterized miRNA derived postmortem from well-characterized samples of various regions of the brains from five normal individuals.

Results: The cluster analysis revealed some differences in the relative levels of these miRNAs among the brain regions studied. Such diversity can be explained by different functioning of these brain regions.
Conclusion: We hope that the data from the current study are a resource that will be useful to our colleagues in this exciting field, as more hypotheses will be generated and tested with regard to small noncoding RNA in the human brain in healthy and disease states.

 

Editor’s Choice – Differences in Relative Levels of 88 microRNAs in Various Regions of the Normal Adult Human Brain – MicroRNA

Journal: MicroRNA

Author(s): Elena V. Filatova, Anelya Alieva, Maria I. Shadrina, Petr A. Slominsky.

Graphical Abstract:

 

Abstract:

Aim of Study: Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the 1990s, our knowledge about their biology has grown considerably. The increasing number of studies addressing the role of miRNAs in development and in various diseases emphasizes the need for a comprehensive catalogue of accurate sequence, expression and conservation information regarding the large number of miRNAs proposed recently in all organs and tissues. The objective of this study was to provide data on the levels of miRNA expression in 15 tissues of the normal human brain.

Materials and Methods: We conducted an analysis of the relative levels of 88 of the most abundantly expressed and best characterized miRNA derived postmortem from well-characterized samples of various regions of the brains from five normal individuals.

Results: The cluster analysis revealed some differences in the relative levels of these miRNAs among the brain regions studied. Such diversity can be explained by different functioning of these brain regions.
Conclusion: We hope that the data from the current study are a resource that will be useful to our colleagues in this exciting field, as more hypotheses will be generated and tested with regard to small noncoding RNA in the human brain in healthy and disease states.

 

Editor’s Choice – Model Validity in Nanoimmunosafety: Advantages and Disadvantages of In vivo vs In vitro Models, and Human vs Animal Models – Current Bionanotechnology

Journal: Current Bionanotechnology

Author(s): Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani.

Graphical Abstract:

 

Abstract:

The thorough understanding of the interaction between nanomaterials and the immune system is the starting point both for nanomaterial exploitation in nanomedicine and for the implementation of an effective regulatory framework concerning nanosafety for human health and the environment. In this context, the use of valid models, in vitro and in vivo, is central for assessing both the positive and the detrimental effects of nanomaterials, thereby predicting their possible risks for human and environmental health. Thus, predicting models are sought that allow us on one side defining hazard posed by nanomaterials, and therefore implementing safety regulation and safe-by-design nanotechnologies, and on the other side exploiting nanomaterials for more effective therapeutic and preventive medical strategies. Here, we consider the advantages and limitation of the current in vitro and in vivo human and animal models, and the appropriateness of their use for assessing the effects of nanomaterials on immunity.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/142770

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