This article by Dr. Jordan A. McKenzie et al. is published in Current Aging Science, Volume 10, Issue 3, 2017
In the journal Current Aging Science, a research team has reviewed modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The reviewers focus on the possible role of neuroinflammation (inflammation of the nervous tissue) in neurodegenerative disease mechanisms. Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are among the most common causes of dementia, and increasingly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. A common hallmark of these two diseases is neuroinflammation, which is initially triggered by the presence of pathological molecular structures associated with these disorders. Chronic neuroinflammation is sustained by persistent activation of the non-neuronal glial cells in the brain, which results in damage or death of neighboring cells, including neurons and glial cells themselves. Persistent neuroinflammation of the brain is hypothesized to contribute to the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
The reviewers note four modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases: physical inactivity, vascular disease-related conditions, obesity and type two diabetes mellitus. These modifiable risk factors contribute to neuroinflammation through specific mechanisms that are directly linked to the pathologies of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. These risk factors are deemed modifiable as their occurrence in the general population can be reduced, or avoided by individuals, through various lifestyle changes, such as improved diet, regular exercise and effective treatment of vascular disease-related conditions such as high blood pressure. This review highlights that the control of the modifiable risk factors is a valid approach for managing the increased incidence of both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. In addition, the neuroinflammatory mechanisms common to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are described, which may link the above four common modifiable risk factors with both of these neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of neuroinflammation could help identify new therapeutic targets for combating neurodegenerative diseases.
View the article here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/150884
Objective: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of hypertension management with Coveram (perindopril/amlodipine combination) in patients with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP). All patients were on previous angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment.
Methods: This was a 3 country, multi-centre (7 cities), open-label, observational study in the Arabian Gulf. Patients (18 years) were recruited between October 2012 and November 2013 and followed-up for 3 months after enrolment. Outcomes included changes in BP from baseline and BP goal attainment rates as per Joint National Committee- 8 (<140/90 mmHg for diabetics and those <60 years of age and <150/90 mmHg for those 60 years of age without diabetes). Medication tolerance was also assessed from both patient and physician perspectives.
Results: Hypertensive patients (n=760; mean age: 51±10 years; 67% were males) were included. A total of 178 patients (23%) were lost to follow-up. The perindopril/amlodipine combination was associated with an overall reduction in systolic BP (SBP) (31 mmHg; p<0.001) and diastolic BP (DBP) (18 mmHg; p<0.001) from baseline. An overall BP control rate was achieved in 87% (n=507) of the participants. There were significant incremental BP reductions with dose up-titration, especially SBP (p<0.001). Those with high SBP (>180 mmHg) at baseline were associated with a mean reduction of 59 mmHg (p<0.001). The perindopril/amlodipine combination had excellent tolerance levels over the study period from both patient and physician perspectives (at 99% and 98%, respectively; p<0.001).
Conclusions: The perindopril/amlodipine combination is an effective and well tolerated anti-hypertensive option in patients on previous ARB treatment.
Author(s): Hiroyuki Sawatari, Akiko Chishaki and Shin-ich Ando
Abstract: Hypertension is prevalent in patients with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Since hypertension significantly relates to cardiovascular diseases, the treatment and prevention of SDB could be targets for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this article, we summarize about epidemiology of SDB and hypertension in various populations. General population based studies on the prevalence of SDB reported that 24 to 47% male and 9 to 30% female had SDB. Furthermore, the prevalence of hypertension in individuals with SDB was high, ranging from 36 to 57%. American and Korean based studies reported that the severity of SDB related to increase of blood pressure and hypertension. In the elderly, however, the severity of SDB did not relate to increase in blood pressure and hypertension, but to dipping pattern of blood pressure. With respect to children, the severity of SDB also related to increase in blood pressure, but the trend was inconstant in children with habitual snoring. In addition to the sexual differences, the severity of SDB related to hypertension in males. On the other hand, there was no relationship between the severity of SDB and hypertension in females. SDB was prevalent in the general population, regardless of race, and affected blood pressure. We should pay attention to the subjects’ individual character when we interrupt the outcome.
World Hypertension Day is held on the 17th of May every year. This day is designated to the control and awareness of hypertension, or high blood pressure. Looking at the importance of this day, Bentham Science Publishers has just the right research journal for it called;
The introduction of targeted therapies has revolutionized the management of cancer patients. Agents that target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), called anti-VEGF, have been administrated for the treatment of various cancer types, inhibiting the carcinogenetic procedure of angiogenesis.
Though their beneficial impact on cancer patients’ outcome, anti-VEGF drugs are accompanied with a broad spectrum of side effects. After searching the literature, we focused on the association between mainly used anti-VEGF anticancer drugs and hypertension (HTN).
Many factors are involved in the emergence of HTN in these patients such as reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) and/or microvascular rarefaction. The incidence of HTN is high and dependent on which agent is used for treating cancer patients.
In two large meta-analyses, bevacizumab-treated patients had an incidence of developing HTN up to 24% while patients with renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors treated with sunitinib had a HTN incidence of approximately 22%. Antihypertensive therapies (i.e angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, b-blockers or diuretics) have been used for the management of anti-VEGF-induced HTN.
Interestingly, the onset of HTN can be considered as a possible biomarker of clinical response to VEGF inhibition (VEGFi) treatment, seeming to be correlated with better overall survival (OS) and prolonged progression free survival in these patients.
Close monitoring of blood pressure (BP) levels, early BP control, proper therapeutic interventions are crucial points in the management of HTN caused by VEGFi. In severe hypertensive cases, discontinuation of anti-VEGF agents or switching to another treatment option might be required. Further research is needed for this exact entity to be elucidated and proper algorithms for HTN handling should be proposed for the optimal benefit of cancer patients.
The goal of this study was to assess the effect of dark chocolate intake on cardiovascular parameters like blood pressure and heart rate values in a normotensive population. http://bit.ly/1FeQgnW
This article is from the journal Current Drug Delivery