Editors Choice Article | Small Animal Models for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis: Proceedings of an NIAID Workshop

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

Author(s): Ramesh Akkina, Daniel L. Barber, Moses T. Bility, Karl-Dimiter Bissig, Benjamin J. Burwitz, Katrin Eichelberg, Janice J. Endsley, J. Victor Garcia, Richard Hafner, Petros C. Karakousis, Brent E. Korba, Rajen Koshy, Chris Lambros, Stephan Menne, Eric L. Nuermberger, Alexander Ploss, Brendan K. Podell, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Brigitte E. Sanders-Beer*, Selvakumar Subbian, Angela Wahl.

 

 

 

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Abstract:

The main advantage of animal models of infectious diseases over in vitro studies is the gain in the understanding of the complex dynamics between the immune system and the pathogen. While small animal models have practical advantages over large animal models, it is crucial to be aware of their limitations. Although the small animal model at least needs to be susceptible to the pathogen under study to obtain meaningful data, key elements of pathogenesis should also be reflected when compared to humans. Welldesigned small animal models for HIV, hepatitis viruses and tuberculosis require, additionally, a thorough understanding of the similarities and differences in the immune responses between humans and small animals and should incorporate that knowledge into the goals of the study. To discuss these considerations, the NIAID hosted a workshop on ‘Small Animal Models for HIV, Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis’ on May 30, 2019. Highlights of the workshop are outlined below.

 

To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/177698/article

Press Release | New book series aims to provide frontier reviews on anti-infective agents

 

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Frontiers in Anti-Infective Agents is a book series that focuses on antibiotics and vaccines, both current and new.

The series is essential reading for general readers, healthcare professionals, researchers and academicians actively involved in research on infectious diseases and anti-infective therapeutic drugs.

The first volume is a comprehensive documentation on major infectious diseases from tropical countries which pose a serious threat to global healthcare programs. These include diseases such as tuberculosis, AIDS, leishmaniasis (kala-azar), elephantiasis, malaria, leprosy, various fungal disorders and emergent viral diseases. Due to the widespread use of antibiotics, there is an emergence of drug resistant pathogens in many regions. Hence, there is a need to search for novel, cost-effective bioactive compounds that demonstrate high efficacy and low toxicity in human cells from unexplored ecosystems to combat emerging drug resistant pathogens. Chapters written for this volume focus on the pathogenesis and etiology of each of the mentioned diseases, updated WHO reports wherever applicable, conventional drugs and their pharmacokinetics as well as new approaches to develop anti-infective agents.

The authors also present a detailed report on multi-drug resistant pathogens (‘superbugs’) and new measures being taken up to eradicate them. Information about new antimicrobials (bioactive peptides and silk protein sericin) and the approaches taken by scientists and healthcare professionals for successful targeting of these molecules for human medicine. For more information, please visit: https://benthambooks.com/book/9789811432736/https://benthambooks.com/book/9789811432736/

About The Editors:

Dr. K. Tamreihao completed his PhD and Master of Science from the Department of Biochemistry, Manipur University, India. He is working as PDF in a project sponsored by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. His research interest lies in the area of plant growth promotion by actinobacteria and feather degradation by keratinolytic actinobacteria and the biofertilizing potential of degraded feathers.

Dr Saikat Mukherjee completed his M.Sc (Biotechnology) from Calcutta University and PhD from CSIR- Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata. He has participated in postdoctoral research programs in University of Geneva, Switzerland and Manipur University, India. His research expertise is in mitochondrial bioenergetics and purification of protein complexes from protozoal, human, bacterial and algal systems.

Prof. Debananda S. Ningthoujam earned his Masters of Science (Life Sciences) from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and PhD (Environmental Biotechnology) from NEERI, Nagpur. He is currently working as a Professor of Biochemistry at the university of Manipur. Prof. Ningthoujam is a life member of several scientific society including AMI, BRSI, SBC, ASM and ISCA. He is actively researching actinomycete biology and biotechnology and has several completed and ongoing projects to his credit. Six new actinomycete species have been reported from his lab. Prof. Ningthoujam has over 25 years of teaching experience and five research scholars have earned their PhDs under his mentorship. He has also supervised several PDF candidates.

READ FULL PRESS RELEASE TO FIND OUT MORE: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-12/bsp-nbs122319.php

EurekAlert! – Application of novel alignment-free sequence descriptors in Zika virus characterization

Dr. Basak and his colleagues explained about their research on computer-assisted approaches towards surveillance and consequent design of drugs and vaccines to combat the growth and spread of the Zika virus.

The recent epidemic of Zika virus infections in South and Latin America has raised serious concerns on its ramifications for the population in the Americas and spread of the virus worldwide. The Zika virus disease is a relatively new phenomenon for which sufficient and comprehensive data and investigative reports have not been available to date. Although first recognized as a new virus in 1947 in Uganda’s Zika forest animals, its debilitating effect on human fetuses leading to babies being born with smaller braincases (microcephaly) was not known or well investigated until its epidemic form in Yap Island, Micronesia, in 2013 and now in the South American countries in 2015-16. The concern is so high that public health authorities in some countries such as Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Jamaica have asked their women to avoid pregnancies until the virus is better understood. The World Health Organization (WHO) has labeled the outbreak of such abnormalities as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.


CREDIT

Dr. Subhash Basak

Read more here: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-04/bsp-aon040816.php

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