Editor’s Choice – Model Validity in Nanoimmunosafety: Advantages and Disadvantages of In vivo vs In vitro Models, and Human vs Animal Models – Current Bionanotechnology

Journal: Current Bionanotechnology

Author(s): Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani.

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Abstract:

The thorough understanding of the interaction between nanomaterials and the immune system is the starting point both for nanomaterial exploitation in nanomedicine and for the implementation of an effective regulatory framework concerning nanosafety for human health and the environment. In this context, the use of valid models, in vitro and in vivo, is central for assessing both the positive and the detrimental effects of nanomaterials, thereby predicting their possible risks for human and environmental health. Thus, predicting models are sought that allow us on one side defining hazard posed by nanomaterials, and therefore implementing safety regulation and safe-by-design nanotechnologies, and on the other side exploiting nanomaterials for more effective therapeutic and preventive medical strategies. Here, we consider the advantages and limitation of the current in vitro and in vivo human and animal models, and the appropriateness of their use for assessing the effects of nanomaterials on immunity.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/142770

Testimonial by Ali Ganji!

Ali Ganji

Contributed Article: “IL-27: Friend Or Foe in the Autoimmune Diseases

Editor’s Choice – “Synovial Inflammation Drives Structural Damage in Hand Osteoarthritis: a Narrative Literature Review”

Journal: Current Rheumatology Reviews

Author(s): Luana Mancarella, Olga Addimanda, Carlotta Cavallari, Riccardo Meliconi

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Abstract:

Background: Ultrasound is one of the most promising candidates for the detection of inflammation and structural damage in hand osteoarthritis.

Objective: To evaluate new advances of US as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in hand osteoarthritis assessment.

Methods: We conducted a Medline on PubMed search for articles about “ultrasonography” and “hand OA” published between January 2012 and 15th April 2016, limiting our search to articles on human adults in English, excluding those involving systemic inflammatory diseases, visualization of joints other than hands, ultrasound guided injections and surgical procedures. Reviews, case reports, letters, position statements and ex vivo studies were excluded. Concordance between ultrasound and conventional radiography and magnetic resonance imaging was evaluated.

Results: Total 46 records were identified, and 16 articles were selected: four showed only ultrasound structural damage (osteophytes, cartilage pathology), six only ultrasound inflammatory variables (synovial thickness, effusion and power Doppler signal), six should considered both ultrasound structural and inflammatory features as well as erosions and two were epidemiological studies. Ultrasound synovitis and power Doppler signal were more frequent in erosive hand osteoarthritis. Followup studies found that ultrasound inflammatory features at baseline are independently associated with radiographic progression; power Doppler signal was the strongest predictor of structural damage. Ultrasound is a reliable tool for cartilage and osteophyte assessment (when performed with static images) and shows a good concordance with magnetic resonance imaging for osteophytes, erosions and synovitis.

Conclusions: Ultrasound detected inflammation may predict radiographic progression and may be used in prospective clinical trials of hand osteoarthritis and in everyday clinical practice.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/145495 

Most Accessed Article – “Innovative Targets For Asthma And COPD: Exploring The Existing And Screening The New!!”

Journal: Infectious Disorders – Drug Targets

Author(s): Preeti Vyas, Divya Vohora

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Abstract:

The inadequate benefits of the existing therapies and the new insights into the pathophysiology of inflammatory airway diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma have led to the breakthrough of newer targets and innovative compounds as the treatment alternatives. The enhanced interpretation of immune cell signalling and signal transduction pathways at the molecular level involved in this process allows the selection of new therapeutic targets and designing of new molecules to combat such multifactorial diseases. Pertaining to the marked variability in type of inflammation observed in their disease phenotypes, the blockade of a particular receptor or mediator yielding strong restorative effect in one patient may not be significant to other. Therefore, their management requires the prompt and phenotype specific optimized drug therapies and development of new and improved molecular compounds targeting the immune cell signalling. This whole process including the approval of such compounds as the standard drug therapies is time taking, expensive and complicated task. It ranges from the selection of novel anti-inflammatory drug target to the final approval of biologically active restorative molecules. Grounded on this, the current review gives a comprehensive idea of the basic immunological network involved in these inflammatory airway diseases at the cellular level along with the discussion of their potential therapeutic targets. It also follows brief over viewing of the drug development process generally employed for the exploration of such innovative targets leading to the discovery of novel anti-inflammatory molecules for these inflammatory airway diseases.

To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/144228

Podcast: Dendritic Cells Modulate Iron Homeostasis and Inflammatory Abilities

Author(s): Vanessa Galleggiante, Stefania De Santis, Elisabetta Cavalcanti, Aurelia Scarano, Maria De Benedictis, Grazia Serino, Maria Lucia Caruso, Mauro Mastronardi, Aldo Pinto, Pietro Campiglia, Dale Kunde, Angelo Santino and Marcello Chieppa

For article details, visit: https://benthamscience.com/journals/current-pharmaceutical-design/article/149200/ 

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Open Access Article – “Metformin and Inflammation: Its Potential Beyond Glucose-lowering Effect”

Journal: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders – Drug Targets

Author(s): Yoshifumi Saisho

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Abstract: Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent which is most widely used as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes. Metformin improves hyperglycemia by suppressing hepatic glucose production and increasing glucose uptake in muscle. Metformin also has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in randomized controlled trials; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be established. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that metformin not only improves chronic inflammation through the improvement of metabolic parameters such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, but also has a direct anti-inflammatory action. Studies have suggested that metformin suppresses inflammatory response by inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and independent pathways. This review summarizes the basic and clinical evidence of the anti-inflammatory action of metformin and discusses its clinical implication.

Read more here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/endocrine-metabolic-and-immune-disorders-drug-targets/volume/15/issue/3/page/196/

Upcoming Thematic Issue – New targets for treating chronic pain and inflammation

Hottopic-CMC-Francesca-Guid

http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-medicinal-chemistry/

Most Cited Article ::: The Use of Cytokines and Chemokines in the Cancer Immunotherapy

Author(s): Amedeo Amedei, Domenico Prisco and Mario M. D’Elios

Abstract: The response of the body to cancer is not a unique mechanism and has many parallels with inflammation and wound healing. Unresolved inflammation generates a microenvironment favorable for cellular transformation and the growth of cancer cells. Chronic tissue damage triggers a repair response that includes the production of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines and chemokines have a crucial role in cancer-related inflammation with consequent, direct and indirect effects on the proliferative and invasive properties of tumor cells. In view of the multifactorial functions of cytokines and chemokines in tumorigenesis, the elucidation of their roles will further advance our understanding of the patho-physiological processes of tumor development and highlights potential innovative anti-cancer strategies.Despite recent advances, main anti-cancer therapies, namely surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, are limited in their ability to treat minimal and metastatic residual disease. Furthermore, the benefit of conventional therapies is often limited by collateral damage to normal tissues. Immunotherapy is a new avenue of cancer treatment being investigated by researchers and clinicians for different cancer types.The aim of this paper is to analyze the recent patents and scientific reviews on the major cytokine/chemokine pathways involved in cancer immunotherapy and discuss their basic biology, clinical relevance and potential directions for future anti-cancer therapeutic applications.


This article is from the journal Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discover

Editor’s Choice Article: The Regulation of miRNAs in Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

Abstract: Chronic inflammation plays important roles in the initiation and development of various cancers, particularly gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer is characterized by stepwise accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations of genes. As a high risk factor for cancer, chronic inflammatory response produces great amount of mediators, including cytokines, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, proteinases, which can induce genetic and epigenetic changes of cancer-associated genes and pathways. Furthermore, inflammation also modulates the expression of miRNAs that not only regulate the expression of tumor-related proteins but also enhance the tumor-promoting inflammatory process. In the current review, we summarize the mechanisms by which inflammatory mediators and signaling regulate the biosynthesis of miRNAs, as well as the involvement of miRNAs in the feedback loops promoting inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.

http://benthamscience.com/journal/abstracts.php?journalID=cpd&articleID=131283

Recently Published Issue of The Journal: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery

Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery publishes review and research articles, and guest edited thematic issues on recent patents in the field of inflammation and allergy drug discovery e.g. on novel bioactive compounds, analogs and targets. A selection of important and recent patents in the field is also included in the journal. The journal is essential reading for all researchers involved in inflammation and allergy drug design and discovery. The journal also covers recent research (where patents have been registered) in fast emerging therapeutic areas/targets & therapeutic agents related to inflammation and allergy drug discovery.

Following are the articles recently published in the journal Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery, 08 Issue 03:

Article: Exocrine Pancreas Involvement in Celiac Disease: A Review
Author(s): Raffaele Pezzilli

Article: Advances of Knowledge on Allergic Inflammation and the Oral Mucosa
Author(s): Cristoforo Incorvaia, Nicola Fuiano, Franco Frati and Francesco Marcucci

Article: Unusual Food Allergy: AlioideaAllergic Reactions Overview
Author(s): Carmen Cantisani, Bianca Visconti, Giovanni Paolino, Federica Frascani, Sonia Tofani, Gilda Fazia and Stefano Calvieri

Article: Hepatic Encephalopathy: Cause and Possible Management with Botanicals Author(s): Suyash Tripathi and Yamini B. Tripathi

Article: Glaucoma Eye Drops Adverse Skin Reactions
Author(s): Carmen Cantisani, Marina Ambrifi, Federica Frascani, Gilda Fazia, Giovanni Paolino, Roberto Lisi and Stefano Calvieri

Article: Prospective Trial of an Herbal Formula BYSH and Saw Palmetto in Patients with Hormonal Refractory Prostate Cancer: A Pilot Study
Author(s): Anthony C.-F. Ng, K.-F. Cheng and P.-C. Leung

Article: Investigation of Gene Expression Pattern of 5HTR2a and MAO-A in PBMCs of Individuals Who Had Been Exposed to Air Pollution in Highly Polluted Area
Author(s): Hajar Sheikhha, Somayeh Emadi, Saman Jorbozedar, Gholamreza D. Deilami and Ghasem Ahangari

Article: Minocycline as Add-On Treatment Decreases the Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia; A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Author(s): Ahmad Ghanizadeh, Sara Dehbozorgi, Motahhar OmraniSigaroodi and Zahra Rezaei

Article: The Role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Etiology of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS)
Author(s): Jan Krasny, Dana Hruba and Magdalena Netukova

For more details, please visit: http://bit.ly/13WVxEN