Journal: Current Immunology Reviews
Diabetes is a severe metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. Over the past decades, a continuous rise of the incidence of diabetes is observed, leading to epidemic dimensions of the disease in large parts of the western world. Depending on the type of diabetes, (auto-)immune processes (type 1 diabetes) or metabolic disorders (type 2 diabetes) dominate the pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, investigations aiming at the identification of disease mechanisms and the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches, focus on the identification of common regulators of both immunologic and metabolic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes. So far, extensive research, employing clinical and experimental approaches demonstrate a central role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in diabetes development. In type 1 diabetes intracellular HSPs located in the beta cell can provide efficient protection against the deleterious effects of autoimmune effector mechanisms whereas extracellular HSPs can stimulate the release of beta cell damaging mediators from innate immune cells or even contribute to the induction of immune reactivity against beta cell specific antigens. In type 2 diabetes HSPs are involved in the control of various immunologic and metabolic processes contributing to the induction and maintenance of low-grade, subclinical inflammation associated with the development of diabetes and related disorders such obesity and insulin resistance. The results of current research on the pathogenesis of diabetes point to HSPs and HSP-dependent immunologic and metabolic pathways as promising targets for strategies to prevent or cure diabetes and its sequelae.
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To access this article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/153449
Journal: Current Bionanotechnology
The thorough understanding of the interaction between nanomaterials and the immune system is the starting point both for nanomaterial exploitation in nanomedicine and for the implementation of an effective regulatory framework concerning nanosafety for human health and the environment. In this context, the use of valid models, in vitro and in vivo, is central for assessing both the positive and the detrimental effects of nanomaterials, thereby predicting their possible risks for human and environmental health. Thus, predicting models are sought that allow us on one side defining hazard posed by nanomaterials, and therefore implementing safety regulation and safe-by-design nanotechnologies, and on the other side exploiting nanomaterials for more effective therapeutic and preventive medical strategies. Here, we consider the advantages and limitation of the current in vitro and in vivo human and animal models, and the appropriateness of their use for assessing the effects of nanomaterials on immunity.
Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/142770
Contributed Article: “IL-27: Friend Or Foe in the Autoimmune Diseases“
Journal: Current Rheumatology Reviews
Background: Ultrasound is one of the most promising candidates for the detection of inflammation and structural damage in hand osteoarthritis.
Objective: To evaluate new advances of US as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in hand osteoarthritis assessment.
Methods: We conducted a Medline on PubMed search for articles about “ultrasonography” and “hand OA” published between January 2012 and 15th April 2016, limiting our search to articles on human adults in English, excluding those involving systemic inflammatory diseases, visualization of joints other than hands, ultrasound guided injections and surgical procedures. Reviews, case reports, letters, position statements and ex vivo studies were excluded. Concordance between ultrasound and conventional radiography and magnetic resonance imaging was evaluated.
Results: Total 46 records were identified, and 16 articles were selected: four showed only ultrasound structural damage (osteophytes, cartilage pathology), six only ultrasound inflammatory variables (synovial thickness, effusion and power Doppler signal), six should considered both ultrasound structural and inflammatory features as well as erosions and two were epidemiological studies. Ultrasound synovitis and power Doppler signal were more frequent in erosive hand osteoarthritis. Followup studies found that ultrasound inflammatory features at baseline are independently associated with radiographic progression; power Doppler signal was the strongest predictor of structural damage. Ultrasound is a reliable tool for cartilage and osteophyte assessment (when performed with static images) and shows a good concordance with magnetic resonance imaging for osteophytes, erosions and synovitis.
Conclusions: Ultrasound detected inflammation may predict radiographic progression and may be used in prospective clinical trials of hand osteoarthritis and in everyday clinical practice.
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Journal: Infectious Disorders – Drug Targets
The inadequate benefits of the existing therapies and the new insights into the pathophysiology of inflammatory airway diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma have led to the breakthrough of newer targets and innovative compounds as the treatment alternatives. The enhanced interpretation of immune cell signalling and signal transduction pathways at the molecular level involved in this process allows the selection of new therapeutic targets and designing of new molecules to combat such multifactorial diseases. Pertaining to the marked variability in type of inflammation observed in their disease phenotypes, the blockade of a particular receptor or mediator yielding strong restorative effect in one patient may not be significant to other. Therefore, their management requires the prompt and phenotype specific optimized drug therapies and development of new and improved molecular compounds targeting the immune cell signalling. This whole process including the approval of such compounds as the standard drug therapies is time taking, expensive and complicated task. It ranges from the selection of novel anti-inflammatory drug target to the final approval of biologically active restorative molecules. Grounded on this, the current review gives a comprehensive idea of the basic immunological network involved in these inflammatory airway diseases at the cellular level along with the discussion of their potential therapeutic targets. It also follows brief over viewing of the drug development process generally employed for the exploration of such innovative targets leading to the discovery of novel anti-inflammatory molecules for these inflammatory airway diseases.
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Author(s): Vanessa Galleggiante, Stefania De Santis, Elisabetta Cavalcanti, Aurelia Scarano, Maria De Benedictis, Grazia Serino, Maria Lucia Caruso, Mauro Mastronardi, Aldo Pinto, Pietro Campiglia, Dale Kunde, Angelo Santino and Marcello Chieppa
For article details, visit: https://benthamscience.com/journals/current-pharmaceutical-design/article/149200/
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