Call for Papers | Current Pharmaceutical Design

Special Thematic Issues | Forthcoming Issues

Journal: Current Pharmaceutical Design


Guest Editor(s): Antoni Camins Espuny, Carlos Beas-zarate
Tentative Publication Date: November, 2019

“New Targets and strategies of Medical Treatments in neurological and neurodegenerative


Current Pharmaceutical Design


The objective of this special issue is to give a vision of different pharmacological and nutritional strategies to develop new treatments for the prevention and cure of diseases that affect the central nervous system. Refractory epilepsy affects 20-30% of patients and constitutes a serious problem should be solved in the future knowing the cause of the loss of effectiveness of drugs. With reference to the other neurodegenerative diseases, it is evident that it is necessary to propose new strategies to solve the problem of cognitive loss in AD, for example, by stimulating the hippocampal insulin receptor, by inhibiting glial activity, or, by the development of new drug strategies through nanoparticles.

This thematic issue will gather information with and emphasis in new targets and strategies the potential therapeutic uses. Moreover, it will generate a forum for discussion of development of new pharmaceutical strategies (nanoparticles, etc) and effects, including the effect in different biological systems. For more details please visit:


To submit your paper, email at: and CC:





Rajeev K. Singla

Contributed Article: “Diabetes Mellitus and Male Aging: Pharmacotherapeutics and Clinical Implications

Editor’s Choice Article “Recent Advances in the Oral Delivery of Insulin”

Journal: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation

Author(s): Rekha M. Ramesan and Chandra P Sharma

ddfAbstract: Insulin was discovered over 90 years ago. However oral insulin still remains a challenging and elusive goal. Extensive efforts are being made worldwide for developing noninvasive drug delivery systems, mainly via oral route as it is the most widely accepted means of administration. The main barriers faced in oral protein delivery are the enzymatic degradation and poor permeability across the intestinal wall. The approaches for developing an oral insulin delivery system mainly focus on overcoming these barriers. To overcome the gastro-intestinal barriers various types of formulations such as insulin conjugates, permeation enhancers, micro/nanoparticles, liposomes etc. are investigated. In the recent years a number of advances have taken place in understanding the needs and workable mechanisms of improved oral peptide delivery systems. In this review the recent patents on oral insulin is focused. Emphasis is on the technologies based on permeation enhancers and nanoparticle based carrier systems.

For more details:

Most common myth about diabetes


The most common myth that you have always heard about diabetes is“eating too much of sugary food causes diabetes.” Basically, there are 2 types of diabetes; therefore, one needs to know the difference between Type I and Type II diabetes. Type I diabetes is genetic and sometimes caused by unknown factors;while Type II diabetes is also genetic but lifestyle plays a major role. So, only having food which is high on sugar does not have to do anything with diabetes directly; instead diabetes develops when sugar does not reach the body cells and starts building up. This happens because pancreas stops making sufficient amount of insulin that eventually causes diabetes. Intake of food rich in sugar may cause weight gain and obesity that increases the risk of developing diabetes, this case is common in Type II diabetes as your lifestyle has an effect on your health.

Contribution by Indian Authors, in BSP Journal: Current Nanoscience


1. Olanzapine Loaded Cationic Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Improved Oral Bioavailability

Author(s): Sumeet Sood, Natarajan Jawahar, Kunal Jain, Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan and Subramania Nainar Meyyanathan

Affiliation: Dept. of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, Tamilnadu-643001, India.


Olanzapine, a lipophilic antipsychotic drug, has poor oral bioavailability due to hepatic first-pass metabolism. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of Olanzapine were developed using lipids (Stearic acid and Glyceryl monostearate), soy lecithin, poloxamer 188 and charge modifier stearyl amine by microemulsion technique. The aim of this research was to find out whether the bioavailability of olanzapine can be improved by administering olanzapine SLN orally to Wistar rats. Area under curve was increased (up to 4-fold) and clearance was decreased when olanzapine entrapped in SLNs with stearylamine were administered orally compared with that of olanzapine suspension. The enhanced relative bioavailability by the SLNs formulation might be attributed to avoidance of first-pass hepatic metabolism by intestinal lymphatic transport, direct uptake of nanoparticles through the GI tract, increased permeability by surfactants, and decreased degradation and clearance. These results indicate that olanzapine can be loaded into solid lipid nanoparticles for improvement of its oral bioavailability.

2. Extra- and Intracellular Gold Nanoparticles Synthesis Using Live Peanut Callus Cells

Author(s): D. Raju, Urmil J. Mehta and Absar Ahmad

Affiliation: Biochemical Sciences Division and Plant Tissue Culture Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune – 411008, Maharashtra, India.


An important challenge of considerable topical significance in nanotechnology is the development of eco-friendly experimental processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials in large quantities with variable sizes, shapes and chemical compositions. Green synthesis routes for the production of inorganic metal nanoparticles using whole cell of microorganisms and plant extracts are gaining tremendous popularity as these are non-toxic, cheap and occur at ambient conditions. The present work emphasizes on gold nanoparticles synthesis protocol using live plant callus cells. Peanut callus cells when incubated with HAuCl4 solution in ambient conditions reduced the precursor and lead to formation of well dispersed, water soluble extracellular and intracellular gold nanoparticles within 24 hours. The biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and further characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED). The particle size distribution shows that the average particle size is 50 nm for extra- and 31 nm for intracellular gold nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may be stabilized by proteins secreted by callus cells. The reduction process is believed to occur enzymatically, thus creating the possibility of a rational, plant cell-based method for the synthesis of nanoparticles over a wide range of chemical compositions.

Nanoparticulate Carrier Mediated Intranasal Delivery of Insulin for the Restoration of Memory Signaling in Alzheimer’s Disease

Author(s): Pankaj Dwivedi, Rakesh Kumar Tekade and Narendra Kumar Jain

Affiliation: Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar 470 003, India.


The present study was aimed to determine the therapeutic potential of novel carriers to deliver insulin into brain, by passing the BBB. PLGA nanoparticles and PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsification method. PEG-PLGA copolymer was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR and Mass spectroscopies. The release profiles of drug in various formulations were studied in PBS (pH 7.4). Results showed more sustained release of drug with Tween-80 based formulation in comparison with Tween-20 and PVA based formulations. A more sustained and extended release was observed upon chitosan coating of PEG-PLGA nanoparticles. Blood glucose level monitoring suggested that glucose level was not decreased significally in the peripheral region (p>0.05), when chitosan coated insulin loaded PEGylated nanoparticle was administered by intranasal route. This outcome in particular along with expected mucoadhesive and targeted benefit associated with chitosan based formulation drove us to conclude this formulation to be working best for the undertaken brain delivery issue.

For details on our journal, please click on: Current Nanoscience

Oral Insulin. A Reality of the future

Ever since man started popping pills for various ailments, pharmaceutical companies’ Holy Grail has been the insulin pill – a pill which will replace the pinpricks that diabetics have begun to consider a part and parcel of their life. Sadly, the plan was abandoned around 80 years ago when pharma companies decided that it just wasn’t a viable option. However, the race is back on with two companies leading the pack – a tiny Israeli pharma company called Oramed Pharmaceuticals Inc and Danish pharma giant Novo Nordisk, incidentally the world’s largest seller of insulin – both believing that the pill is a viable option.Image

The pill, when it comes will surely revolutionise the pharma industry, almost as much as the oral contraceptive pill did in the 60s and Lipitor (a blood cholesterol lowering drug) and Viagra did in the 90s. Never before has the market been so fertile, considering there are 370 million diabetics in the world. And Novo Nordisk is ready to take the plunge with the company announcing that it will spend up to $3.65 billion till 2020 to develop and produce six different diabetes pills. The underdog isn’t standing still though; Oramed’s program is a little ahead of Novo’s with patients enrolling for Phase II clinical trials. The mastermind behind Oramed’s oral insulin is the CEO’s mother Miriam Kidron who’s done the groundwork with years of research on the diabetes.  ‘She’s the chief scientist. I just went for the ride to do the business side,’ said Oramed CEO Nadav Kidron told Reuters.

Why has previous alternative insulin delivery systems failed?

The concept of the pill has been around since the 1930s but it fizzled out when it was discovered that insulin, being a protein made of amino acids would be destroyed by the digestive system. The focus on the oral insulin is back on because of the huge number of type 2 diabetics in the world, accounting for around 90-95% of the numbers.  But the wait is going to be long, especially the regulatory approval and will need large scale trials to prove their efficacy and safety. Except injections, all other methods of insulin delivery have been rejected till now including Pfizer Inc’s inhaled insulin product.

Why is the pill so attractive?

Dr Rajiv Kovel, a diabetelogist explains, ‘Oral Insulin holds promise since if it gets absorbed from gastrointestinal tract then it would undergo first pass metabolism through the liver like natural insulin. When we inject insulin into subcutaneous tissue it is not the physiological site for injection. Oral insulin would increase the levels of insulin in portal system.’

While insulin is naturally produced in the pancreas and then goes to the liver, injected insulin circulates throughout the body before it gets there. The main attractiveness of an insulin pill, if it works, is that any absorbed insulin would go directly to the liver from the digestive tract.

To counter the digestive system’s natural ability to break down insulin, both companies are looking to use protective coating and molecular modifications to make sure that enough insulin gets absorbed to maintain blood sugar levels.  Dr Kovil adds, ‘If one could have insulin as oral pills since one need not take injections thereafter, the compliance of patients to therapy would increase drastically.’ (Read: 10 celebrities living with diabetes)

A new dawn for diabetics?

Kidron believes that the pill, if it works, could revolutionise healthcare. ‘If we give insulin earlier on, we’re going to give the pancreas a rest,’ Kidron explained. ‘We could reduce the complications, such as blindness and amputations.’ Dr Kovil agrees, ‘If the bio-availability of oral insulin pills is good then there can be no downside. Preventing the degradation of insulin in gastrointestinal mucosa and thus increasing the levels in intestine is what many pharma companies are aiming at. But one needs to understand that the most important advantage of injectable insulin is small increments and decrements and flexibility it allows to patients and doctors. If oral insulin does not allow flexibility in our therapy then it has no value.’ (Read: Five herbal remedies for diabetes)



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