Editors choice: How to Optimize the Effectiveness and Safety of Parkinson’s Disease Therapy? – A Systematic Review of Drugs Interactions with Food and Dietary Supplements

Author(s): Wiesner AgnieszkaPaśko Paweł and Kujawska Małgorzata*

Background: Despite increasing worldwide incidence of Parkinson’s disease, the therapy is still suboptimal due to the diversified clinical manifestations, lack of sufficient treatment, the poor adherence in advanced patients, and varied response. Proper intake of medications regarding food and managing drug-food interactions may optimize Parkinson’s disease treatment.

Objectives: We investigated potential effects that food, beverages, and dietary supplements may have on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs used by parkinsonian patients; identified the most probable interactions; and shaped recommendations for the optimal intake of drugs regarding food.

Methods: We performed a systematic review in adherence to PRISMA guidelines, and included a total of 81 studies in the qualitative synthesis.

Results and Conclusion: We found evidence for levodopa positive interaction with coffee, fiber and vitamin C, as well as for the potential beneficial impact of low-fat and protein redistribution diet. Contrastingly, high-protein diet and ferrous sulfate supplements can negatively affect levodopa pharmacokinetics and effectiveness. For other drugs, the data of food impact are scarce. Based on the available limited evidence, all dopamine agonists (bromocriptine, cabergoline, ropinirole), tolcapone, rasagiline, selegiline in tablets, safinamide, amantadine and pimavanserin can be taken with or without a meal. Opicapone and orally disintegrating selegiline tablets should be administered on an empty stomach. Of monoamine oxidase B inhibitors, safinamide is the least susceptible for interaction with the tyramine-rich food, whereas selegiline and rasagiline may lose selectivity to monoamine oxidase B when administered in supratherapeutic doses. The level of presented evidence is low due to the poor studies design, their insufficient actuality, and missing data.

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MOST ACCESSED ARTICLE – The Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacological Treatments for Post-stroke Aphasia

Journal Name: CNS & Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets

Author(s): Xiaoyan Zhang, Bohui Shu, Dongdong Zhang, Lina Huang, Qizhi Fu, Ganqin Du*.




Graphical Abstract:



Background: Aphasia is a common complication after stroke, and traditional speech and language therapy (SLT) has a limited effect on post-stroke aphasia (PSA). While there has been an increasing number of controlled clinical trials on the efficacy of drugs in the treatment of PSA, there have been very few systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments in people with PSA.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for PSA.

Methods: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRA), PubMed, Embase, Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD), China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc), Wanfang Data and VIP Information System were searched for randomized controlled trials about pharmacological treatments for PSA. Literature screening using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, data extraction and methodological quality assessment of the included studies were completed by two independent reviewers. Methodological quality was considered high for modified Jadad quality scale scores of 4 to 7. RevMan 5.3 software was used to conduct a meta-analysis of high-quality studies.

Results: Fifteen studies (578 participants) satisfied the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. Five trials (277 participants) assessed donepezil, four studies (124 participants) assessed memantine, three studies (72 participants) assessed bromocriptine, one trial (45 patients) evaluated galantamine, one study (21 patients) evaluated amphetamine, and one trial (39 patients) evaluated levodopa. The systematic review showed that donepezil achieved remarkable results in terms of the aphasia quotient (AQ) (SMD 0.82, 95% CI 0.48-1.17, P < 0.00001), repetition ability (SMD 0. 81, 95% CI 0.57-1.06, P < 0.00001), naming ability (SMD 0.56, 95% CI 0.29-0. 84, P < 0.00001), auditory comprehension (SMD 0.85, 95% CI 0.58-1. 13, P< 0.00001) and oral expression (SMD 0.90, 95% CI 0.54-1.26, P < 0.00001). Memantine showed no pronounced improvement in auditory comprehension (SMD 0.35, 95% CI -0.05-0.74, P = 0.09) but did improve the AQ (SMD 0.57, 95% CI 0.09-1.06, P = 0. 02), naming ability (SMD 0.81, 95% CI 0.38-1.25, P = 0.0002), spontaneous speech (SMD 0.76, 95% CI 0. 39- 1.13, P < 0.0001), and repetition ability (SMD 0.37, 95% CI 0.01-0.73, P = 0.04). Bromocriptine showed pronounced improvement in naming ability (SMD -0.20, 95% CI- 0.67-0.26, P = 0.39), verbal fluency (SMD 0.02, 95% CI 0.53-0.56, P = 0.95), and repetition ability (SMD 0.29, 95% CI -0.23-0. 81, P = 0.28). There is limited and inconclusive evidence for galantamine, amphetamine and levodopa.

Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that drugs, such as donepezil and memantine, can improve the prognosis of PSA. Donepezil has a significant effect in improving the ability of auditory comprehension, naming, repetition and oral expression. Memantine has a significant effect in improving the ability of naming, spontaneous speech and repetition. Bromocriptine showed no significant improvements in the treatment of aphasia after stroke. Data regarding galantamine, amphetamine and levodopa in the treatment of aphasia after stroke are limited and inconclusive.



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