Most Cited Article – Transungual Drug Delivery System for the Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis: A Review

Author(s):Yashwant GiriAmulyaratna BeheraBiswaranjan Mohanty*Gurudutta Pattnaik and S.K. Habibullah

Volume 12, Issue 1, 2022

Published on: 18 March, 2022

Page: [2 – 18]

Pages: 17

DOI: 10.2174/2210303112666220224110100


Onychomycosis is an infection caused by a fungus that causes discoloration and thickening of the nail layer, and it is the most common nail infection in the world. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigital is the most common anthropophilic dermatophytes that trigger it. Onychomycosis is caused by yeasts such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, as well as moulds such as Aspergillus spp. Treatment is determined by the type of nail invasion, the fungus genus, and the number of nails affected. Approaches towards conventional methods showed certain drawbacks, which emphasizes the need for alternate approaches to produce better therapeutic efficacy of a product. The present review focused on reporting an updated classification of Onchyomycosis, causative organisms, factors influencing drug permeation, novel treatment strategies for Onychomycosis, and drug permeation enhancement methods. Read now:

Most Cited Article – Purification of Drug Loaded Liposomal Formulations by a Novel Stirred Cell Ultrafiltration Technique

Author(s):Prakash K. Soni  and Tulsi R. Saini*

Volume 9, Issue 5, 2021

Published on: 27 December, 2021

Page: [347 – 360]

Pages: 14

DOI: 10.2174/2211738509666211124145848


Background: Presently reported methods for purification of liposomal formulations at laboratory scale have drawbacks of adversely affecting critical quality attributes (CQAs) of liposomes such as particle size, PDI, drug entrapment efficiency, etc., and are also not amenable for large scale processing.

Objective: The present study was aimed to explore stirred cell ultrafiltration technique as a novel liposome purification method for removal of unentrapped free drug and excess external aqueous fluid, maintaining the physical integrity of liposomes.

Methods: Purification of brimonidine loaded liposomes (model formulation) was performed by stirred cell ultrafiltration method, and its functional performance and impact on liposomal particle size, PDI, and entrapment efficiency were compared with two widely used laboratory scale methods, i.e., ultracentrifugation and centrifugal ultrafiltration.

Results: The novel stirred cell ultrafiltration method demonstrated liposomal purification within ~30 min with complete liposomal recovery showing minimal processing impact, i.e., ˂0.25 fold rise in particle size, ~0.5 fold rise in PDI, and ~4% loss in % entrapment efficiency, respectively. Whereas ultracentrifugation and centrifugal ultrafiltration methods resulted in ~4 fold and ˃2 fold rise in particle size, ˃10 fold and ˃5 fold rise in PDI, and ˃25% and ~6% loss in entrapment efficiency, respectively.

Conclusion: The unique and product-friendly operational features of stirred cell ultrafiltration method demonstrated simple, rapid, and efficient liposomal purification without affecting CQAs of liposomal vesicles. This method was also evidently found to be product-friendly, rugged, versatile, and scalable up to large production batch processing, overcoming major drawbacks of presently used methods. Read now:

Open Access Articles – Ethosomes and Transfersomes: Principles, Perspectives and Practices

Journal Name: Current Drug Delivery

Author(s): Varun Garg, Harmanpreet Singh, Sneha Bimbrawh, Sachin Kumar Singh*,Monica Gulati, Yogyata Vaidya, Prabhjot Kaur.



Graphical Abstract:




Background: The success story of liposomes in the treatment of systemic infectious diseases and various carcinomas lead the scientists to the innovation of elastic vesicles to achieve similar success through transdermal route. In this direction, ethosomes and transfersomes were developed with the objective to design the vesicles that could pass through the skin. However, there is a lack of systematic review outlining the principles, method of preparation, latest advancement and applications of ethosomes and transfersomes. This review covers various aspects that would be helpful to scientists in understanding advantages of these vesicular systems and designing a unique nano vesicular delivery system.

Methods: Structured search of bibliographic databases for previously published peer-reviewed research papers was explored and data was culminated in terms of principle of these vesicular delivery systems, composition, mechanism of actions, preparation techniques, methods for their characterization and their application.

Results: A total of 182 papers including both, research and review articles, were included in this review in order to make the article comprehensive and readily understandable. The mechanism of action and composition of ethosomes and transfersomes was extensively discussed. Various methods of preparation such as, rotary film evaporation method, reverse phase evaporation method, vortex/ sonication method, ethanol injection method, freeze thaw methods, along with their advantages has been discussed. It was also discussed that both these elastic nanocarriers offer unique advantages of ferrying the drug across membranes, sustaining drug release as well as protecting the encapsulated bio actives from external environment. The enhanced bioavailability and skin penetration of ethosomes as compared to conventional vesicular delivery systems is attributed to the presence of ethanol in the bilayers while that for transfersomes accrues due to their elasticity along with their ability to retain their shape because of the presence of edge activators. Successful delivery of synthetic drugs as well as phytomedicines has been extensively reported through these vesicles.
Conclusion: Though these vesicular systems offer a good potential for rational drug delivery, a thoughtfully designed process is required to optimize the process variables involved. Industrial scale production of efficacious, safe, cost effective and stable formulations of both these delivery systems appears to be a pre-requisite to ensure their utility as the trans-dermal vehicles.

For more details, please visit:

MOST ACCESSED ARTICLE – Targeted Nanosystems for Cancer Therapy – Current Cancer Therapy Reviews

Journal: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews

Author(s): Ruhee Jain, Tahseen Khan, Sourabh Jain, Ashutosh Pal Jain, Aakanchha Jain

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Significant shortcomings have been displayed in conventional chemotherapeutics delivery which possesses some genuine side effects including harm of the immunity and different organs with quickly multiplying cells because of nonparticular focus on the absence of dissolvability and powerlessness to enter the tumor core bringing about debilitated treatment with diminished dosage and with low survival rate. Rapid development has adapted nanocarriers as distinct therapeutics which can directly access the tumor cells specifically with expanded medication limitation and cell take-up for cancer treatment.

Methodology: This review focuses on core objective of drug targeting to the cancerous cells by demonstrating the advantages of the young medical field, “nanocarriers” including liposomes, polymer based nanoparticles, metal based nanoparticles, dendrimers, protein linked systems, co-polymers and fullerenes, which have been proven remarkably promising in enhancing drug distribution and bioavailability, increasing half life and achieving targeted drug delivery, thus reducing toxicity.

Conclusion: Here we provide an update on the recent clinical trials in nanocarrier based therapy of colon rectal cancer, food and drug administration (FDA) approved nanomedicines for cancer and those in nanoplatforms which have reached an advanced stage of clinical development.
To access the article, please visit:


HIGHLIGHTED ARTICLE – Vesicular Systems Containing Curcumin And Their Applications In Respiratory Disorders – Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology

PN-Articles_5-4-Dinesh Kumar Chellappan

To access the article, please visit:

Editor’s Choice – Advances and Perspectives in Cancer Nanotherapy – Current Nanomedicine

Journal: Current Nanomedicine

Author(s): Costas Demetzos, Natassa Pippa, Stergios Pispas.

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Cancer nanotherapy integrate efficacious molecules that otherwise could not be used because of their high toxicity and exploit multiple mechanisms of actions (e.g. multifunctional gels, functional polymers, hybrid nanoparticles). The aim of this review is to contemplate the designed and developed nanoparticulate systems that exhibit a benefit in cancer nanotherapy strongly related with the properties of the nanoplatforms formulation.

Method: Systemic search and review of papers regarding cancer nanotherapy took place via MedLine and abstract presentations of international conferences.

Results: The recent advances in the development of self-assembled structures of lipids- (i.e. liposomes, niosomes, etc.) and of polymers- (micelles, polymersomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, hydrogels, etc.) as well as clinical perspectives will be discussed on the basis of pharmaceutical nanotechnology considerations, and on their in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Chimeric/Mixed nanoplatforms that are composed at least of two different in nature biomaterials (i.e. phospholipids and polymers) can be considered as new technological outcomes in cancer nanotherapy that could be able to deliver anticancer drugs to specific tissues.

Conclusion: They can improve the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics behavior of antitumor molecules, affect their total bioavailability and provide innovative delivery behavior due to their nanotechnological profile.

Read more here:



Press Release for EurekAlert! The role of size in development of mucosal liposome-lipopeptide vaccine

Group A Streptococcus (GAS), or Streptococcus pyogenes is an exclusivel y human Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. A delay in treatment of GAS infection often lead to severe diseases such as rheumatic heart disease which attributes to hundreds of thousands deaths annually. For the past few decades, the quest for a commercial GAS vaccine has been futile mainly due to the presence of multiple GAS serotypes (more than 200). Currently, one of the most investigated strategies used to develop a vaccine against GAS includes the use of conserved epitopes from a major virulent factor of GAS, i.e. the M-protein. In this study, lipopeptide bearing two lipid moieties, a major B-cell GAS epitope derived from the M-protein (J14) and a universal T-helper epitope (P25) were chosen as the vaccine candidate. Cationic liposomes were used as the delivery vehicle due to their ability to adhere to the negatively charged membrane of the cells in the mucosa. As size was often reported to have an influence on immune response, liposomes of varying sizes (70 nm to 1000 nm) encapsulating the vaccine candidate were prepared. The mice were immunized intranasally with the liposomes of different sizes. Though the differences between these groups were not statistically significant, a trend was observed whereby the level of IgG production was inversely proportional to the size of liposomes.In addition, a mixture of different liposome sizes elicited the same antibody titres as the smallest liposomes. Nonetheless, all mice which were immunized with a liposome-lipopeptide delivery system elicited high levels of systemic (IgG) and mucosal antibodies (IgA), which were discernably higher than those induced with the help of commercial adjuvant (cholera toxin B subunit). Furthermore, the produced systemic antibodies were able to opsonize GAS clinical isolates.

For more information about the article, please visit

%d bloggers like this: