EDITORS CHOICE ARTICLE – Interplay between the APOE Genotype and Possible Plasma Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s DiseaseInterplay between the APOE Genotype and Possible Plasma Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease

Journal Name: Current Alzheimer Research

Author(s): Martina Zverova, Eva Kitzlerova, Zdenek Fisar*, Roman Jirak, Jana Hroudova, Hana Benakova,Petra Lelkova, Pavel Martasek, Jiri Raboch.

 

 

Abstract:

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a complex pathogenesis and a common occurrence of comorbid diseases such as depression. It is accepted that the presence of the ε4 allele of the gene that encodes apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the strongest genetic risk factor for the development of sporadic AD. Melatonin, cortisol, homocysteine, and prolactin are presumed to be risk factors or biomarkers for stress- and age-related disorders.

Objective: The interplay between the APOE genotype and plasma biomarkers was examined in patients with AD presenting with or without depression to contribute to understanding the interdependence of various molecular mechanisms in the pathophysiology of AD.

Method: The APOE genotype and morning plasma melatonin, cortisol, homocysteine, and prolactin concentrations were measured in 85 patients with AD and 44 elderly controls.

Results: A significant association between AD and the allele (ε4) or genotype (ε3/ε4 or ε4/ε4) frequencies of APOE was confirmed. Plasma homocysteine and cortisol levels were significantly increased in patients with AD compared to those in controls, independent of the presence of comorbid depressive symptoms or the severity of dementia. Significantly lower plasma melatonin concentration was found in patients with AD but not in controls, who were noncarriers of the APOE ε4 allele, regardless of the presence of depression or the severity of dementia in AD.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate the existence of a little-known specific APOE-mediated mechanism that increases the plasma melatonin level in a subgroup of patients with AD who are carriers of the APOE ε4 allele.

 

READ MORE HERE: http://www.eurekaselect.com/162646/article

Highlighted Article – Evaluation of Salivary Melatonin Levels in HIV- Positive Patients – Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials

RRCT-Articles_12-4-Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel

http://benthamscience.com/journals/reviews-on-recent-clinical-trials/epub-ahead-of-print/

“Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders”

On World Autism Awareness Day 2016, here is an article and its abstract from the journal Current Clinical Pharmacology 

10430871_795543103871321_3785307947030803965_nAbstract: Melatonin is an endogenous neurohormone produced predominantly in the pineal gland. Recent studies have implicated abnormalities in melatonin physiology and the circadian rhythm in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). These physiological abnormalities include lower nighttime melatonin or melatonin metabolite concentrations in ASD compared to controls. These abnormalities in melatonin concentrations may be directly attributed to variations in melatonin pathway physiology as both functional and genetic variations in this pathway have been reported in children with ASD. Four studies have observed a correlation between abnormal melatonin concentrations and the severity of autistic behaviors. Twenty clinical studies have reported improvements in sleep parameters with exogenous melatonin supplementation in ASD, including longer sleep duration, less nighttime awakenings and quicker sleep onset.

To read more about this insightful research, visit: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-clinical-pharmacology/volume/9/issue/4/page/326/

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